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Device for testing the abrasion resistance of lacquers and other surfaces.

Abrasion resistance

is the resistance to abrasive stress and its effect on paints, e.g. by walking on floors or by brushing. This stress is created in the laboratory by abrasion testing devices. The main way to do this is to go over the test surface with an abrasive-covered surface or an electric friction wheel. In the main, the Taber Abraser test is used in accordance with DIN 53 754. Sanding the paint is another basic principle: Standardised sand falls from a small pipe onto the tilted paint surface. The amount of sand required to wear through the paint is taken as the benchmark for the abrasion resistance. The sanding can be intensified by means of a compressed air feed.


Materials and compounds (solid, liquid, porous) that absorb other materials = may soak up, e.g. UV absorber - light rays, powdered carbon = gases/liquids.


acetic acid ester used as a solvent and raw material for lacquer, e.g. a) Ethyl- and butyl acetate, b) Polyvinyl acetate (PVAc).


CH3COCH3 - obtained by distilling acetate salts or from coal tar. Pure acetone is a light, volatile, inflammable liquid with a pleasant, aromatic smell. Can be mixed with water, alcohol and ether. Flashpoint at 46°C. Spec. weight 0.79. Used as a solvent for many resins and fats and for dissolving old lacquers. Belongs to the ketone group

Acrylic resin lacquers

air-hardening lacquers, also heat-hardening and reactive by isocyanate resins


the adherence of the molecules of different liquid and solid materials with each other


Accord Européen Relatif au Transport International des Marchandises Dangereuses par Route (European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road).


fines dispersion of liquid (mist) or solid materials in the air. Particularly fine aerosols can penetrate into the lungs and affect them under certain circumstances. Among other things, aerosols include mists, spray products and petrol/air mixtures created in motor vehicle carburettors

Air-Mix system

(Air-assisted high pressure sprays, approx. 20 - 60 bar) mixing system for atomising lacquers and stains. The compressed liquid is atomised by adding compressed air to improve dosing and control. You get a "soft spray jet"

Airless spraying

(high pressure spraying without compressed air). The lacquer is placed under high pressure and sprayed through a replaceable specialist nozzle with fine holes using a compressed air or motor-driven piston pump. The lacquer can be compressed up to 300 bar. The amount of lacquer coming out is determined by the amount of lacquer pressure, the width of the nozzles and the viscosity of the lacquer. When spraying in this way, the lacquer hardly forms a mist, however any solvent vapour released (with NC lacquer approx. 80% of the amount of lacquer sprayed) needs to be removed by suction. As a result, a spraying booth with extraction must be used. With devices with their own electric motor, only the ex-protected design is to be used. Airless devices must be earthed in order to prevent an electrostatic charge. Caution is required due to the high operating pressure, and under no circumstances must the spray jet be allowed to be in contact with the skin. This would force solvents, among other things, under the skin.


Accelerators, hardeners

Alert strategy

Alert strategies are used for the quick and targeted alerting of not only in-house assistance groups, decision makers and managers, but also external recipients such as the Fire Brigade, Police, environmental authorities or similar, in all exceptional circumstances and emergencies. An alert strategy is mandatory in the event of a fire. The requirement set out in Art. 43 para. 6 of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations of the German trade associations "An alert strategy is to be set up for the event of fire" applies to all businesses regardless of size and sector. Although 'only' required here for the event of fire, similar alert strategies should be set up for all other conceivable exceptional circumstances such as accidents, serious damage, threats, disasters or environmental incidents. "Alert strategies should be available in suitable places during operating hours e.g. in permanently staffed departments such as telephone switchboards, administration offices, gates and out of hours e.g. at any gates staffed around the clock, with contracted security companies or with the Police or Fire Brigade themselves".


Hydroxide of alkali metals, also aluminium hydroxide. Their aqueous solutions react as an alkali (base), they turn litmus blue. The hydroxides of the metals sodium and potassium are also referred to as caustic soda and caustic potash


Hydrocarbon compounds containing one or more hydroxyl groups -OH. These are divided into:

Monols = univalent alcohols (ethanol)

Diols = bivalent alcohols (glycols)

Triols = trivalent alcohols (glycerine)

Alkyd resin lacquers

are structured based on special synthetic resins (alkyd resins) with drying oil and generally stand out from oil lacquers for among other things due to quicker drying times and greater film hardness. The film forms chemically by absorbing oxygen in the air

Anti-setting agents

prevents matting agents from setting

Anti-bubbling agent

for removing air from the lacquer

Antimicrobially functioning coatings

Antimicrobially functioning coatings are surfaces, which are anywhere applicable, where hygiene and health is most important. By the use of silver particles in the lacquer, coatings are produced, which - once applied on a surface - durably and highly efficiently combat bacteria and germs, without setting free disinfectants or other chemical agents. It was the Nano-technology, which made it possible to produce so extremely fine silver particles, that those are no more visible in clear lacquer systems


the application of colours (stains, lacquers, etc.)

Aromatic compounds

is the class of organic compounds derived from benzene. The characteristic building block of their molecules is the hexagonal benzene ring


Explosive atmospheres

ATEX 137

European Directive (1999/92/EC) regarding the safety of workers potentially at risk from explosive atmospheres. The Directive was transposed into domestic law by means of the German Company Health and Safety Regulations (BetrSichV).


European Directive (94/9/EC) for equipment and protective systems intended for use in potentially explosive atmospheres

Adhesive layer

also called primer, this is intended to provide improved adhesion between the substrate and the top coat. Required with exotic woods that can be heavily coated or for improving adhesion for specialist top coats. In many cases, already having a good DD insulating base allows very good adhesion


Adhesion of a lacquer film to the corresponding substrate. It is tested by means of the cross-cut test. The dried lacquer film is cut into squares of 2mm along the edges using a template and knife.

The quality of the adhesion is evaluated according to how much lacquer flakes off or the appearance of the cut edge. On hard substrates an adhesive tape is applied to the grid and removed at an even speed. This allows the lacquer film to stick to the adhesive tape.

Auxiliary materials

(additives), are the components when producing lacquers referred to as auxiliary materials that, even in small amounts, can heavily influence or, as may apply, improve the formation of the film. The function of the auxiliary material allows them to be classed as follows:

- Siccatives

- Hardening accelerators

- Anti-skinning agents

- Levelling agents

- Wetting agents

- Anti-flocculation agents

- Anti-setting agents

- Matting agents

Adhesive tape test

A practical option for testing the adhesion of a coat of lacquer. An adhesive strip (Tesa) is stuck to the lacquer surface and ripped off after a few minutes

Air humidity

Water vapour content of the air measured as absolute air humidity in g water/m3 air or as relative air humidity, the ratio of the amount of water vapour present to the maximum amount at the same temperature

Acid hardener lacquer

(AC lacquer) combination of urea and/or melamine resins with film formers e.g. cellulose nitrate, softeners, additives, solvents and an acid (sulphonic acid, phosphor derivatives, no hydrochloric acid). Where the lacquer is contained in the lacquer, we speak of mono-component lacquer with a limited shelf life. Where a hardener containing the acid needs to be mixed before treatment, we speak of 2C AC lacquer with a limited potlife. Here too there are wetting and less wetting types. Qualities vary depending on the type and supplier


Natural and synthetic sanding grains are used that are produced on abrasive papers, abrasive fabrics or mixtures of both (also called grain carriers or substrates) by being embedded in lacquer, glue or resin in an open or closed distribution pattern.

Breathing protection

Particles bigger than 5 µm are normally removed from the trachea and bronchial tubes by breathing out. Particles smaller than 5 µm penetrate deep into the lungs and as such need to be mechanically filtered from the air breathed in with the help of an appropriate fine particle mask.


are mostly primers with low levels of white pigment additives as specialist film formers or with a low level of wetting


is the decreasing of the saturation of a coating's colour. Fading should not be confused with chalking


is the migration of a colourant from one medium to another one in contact with it. Where for example strongly coloured woods (especially exotic ones) have too much primer, their colours dissolve and seep into the base coat film - they bleed. For examples, with inlays, maple will be seen to stained around the edges by the adjacent stained wood. These materials that bleed are referred to as inhibiting ones and may delay or prevent polyester lacquers from hardening completely.


transforming dissolved materials into insoluble ones with the help of chemical reactions or physically by adding products in which the material is insoluble or difficult to dissolve


aromatic hydrocarbon. Benzine is banned as a solvent due to its toxicity.


increase the reaction time when hardening adhesives or coating materials. In general, hardeners also serve as catalysts. With PE lacquers, cobalt accelerators are used, and Solgen Zinc is used with DD lacquers


a filter in waste air purification plants where harmful substances are broken down by micro-organisms that have settled on a solid host such as compost, mould or peat. The harmful substances are mainly broken down into water and carbon dioxide. The reliability of such filters depends substantially an specific environmental conditions required by biology being met, such as: Temperature, moisture, homogeneity, etc.

Biological surface treatment

imprecise, unprotected term. Achievable: e.g. pure edible linseed oil on wood = long drying time, low stability


With excessive temperatures or excessive air speed in the spray booth, with the spray gun at an insufficient distance from the work piece, with insufficiently ventilated hydrogen peroxide as a characteristic of the material. In the event of doubt, spray the lacquer in question onto a glass plate. Where the lacquer dries on the neutral glass without forming bubbles, the cause is to be found with the spraying, in the spraying area or with items being worked on whose temperature is not reduced or where they are insufficiently ventilated. With wood, bubbles can also be due to air escaping from the pores or the grain being too course. Bubbles can also form with veneered chipboard where the adhesive has not set sufficiently

Bleach staining

Bleaching and staining in a process with hydrogen peroxide + catalyst + peroxy-resistant water-based stain solution. Applied with a cup gun in a spray booth. By way of example, this procedure can be used to give American walnut the tone of French walnut


bleaching is used to refer to the varying degrees of destruction of coloured components of wood, textiles and other products. These are divided into:

Partial bleaching - brightening the components.

Total bleaching - complete bleaching of the components.

Pseudo-bleaching - visual brightening by introducing white pigments into the wood fibre of special combinations of pigment-less binding agents

Containing BRC

BRC stands for Bio Renewable Carbon and means produced using renewable raw materials


very hot activation, indeed an almost visible increase in the size of the wood pores, is to be set, in particular with high gloss, buffed polyester surfaces. This emphasis, as under the magnifying glass, together with a high gloss, gives the so-called brilliance

Brinell hardness (BH)

is determined with the fixed or mobile hardness test device: A hard ball of a fixed diameter D = 10 mm is pressed in under a load of 29,420 N for 10 s. The test load/surface ratio of the indentation left behind is given as the BH unit


with felt or gauze strips on a belt sander or with bundles of linen, cotton cloth or molleton disks with an angle sander, on buffing stands or special automatic buffing machines with the addition of buffing wax or salve in order to achieve high gloss surfaces. (Buffing is a removing process)


Lacquers set too brittle often do not contain enough of relatively expensive softeners or, if multi-component lacquer is involved, too much hardener caused too much post-hardening. Brittle lacquers are often sensitive to impact, have low adhesion and are prone to cracks forming

Calandar Coating

Calander coating was invented for the wood-based materials industry to produce cost-effective, high-quality coatings. In the process, a film is placed on top of a wet coating film. The film is then cured with UV light that shines through the film. Depending on the characteristics of the film, a perfect high-gloss surface or a matt, micro-structured surface is obtained after removing the film. Since the irradiation takes place inertly, i.e. under exclusion of oxygen, the final surface meets the highest standards in terms of resistance to scratching. Advantages:

- Dull matt to high gloss: different gloss levels depending on the calander film used.
- Super-smooth high-gloss surfaces
- Savings on finishing work on high-gloss paints (sanding and polishing)
- High resistance to scratching


Andere Bezeichnungen sind Nitrolack, CN-Lack, NC-Lack. NC-Lacke stellen auch heute noch den mengenmäßig größten Teil der Möbellacke. Die in ihrer Handhabung meist recht einfachen NC-Lacke trocknen rein physikalisch durch Abdunsten der organischen Lösemittel. Ein Anlösen der trockenen Lackschicht ist jederzeit mit den geeigneten Lösungsmitteln möglich. Dadurch ist ein Reparieren oder Restaurieren problemlos. Der Festkörpergehalt liegt in der Regel zwischen 15 und 30%. Der dadurch bedingt relativ hohe Lösungsmittelanteil führt gerade in der heutigen Zeit zu Konflikten mit den Emissionsschutzgesetzen (TA-Luft/VOC).

Die Widerstandfähigkeit der NC-Lackoberflächen ist für Wohnmöbel sowohl in Bezug auf chemische wie auch mechanische Beanspruchung akzeptabel, für Küchen-, Bad-, Büromöbel und Tischplatten aber nicht ausreichend.


Widerstandsfähigkeit von Lackfilmen gegen die Einwirkung von Gasen, Flüssigkeiten und Feststoffen chemisch aggressiver Art, z.B. gegen Laugen und Säuren. (Holz und Möbelteile DIN 68861)

Chemische Härtung

durch zugemischte oder bereits in den Lack eingebaute Härter vollzieht sich eine chemische Reaktion, welche beeinflusst werden kann. Hitze als Reaktionsbeschleuniger, Kälte als Reaktionsverzögerer

Chemische Trocknung

durch zugemischte oder bereits in den Lack eingebaute Härter vollzieht sich eine chemische Reaktion, welche beeinflusst werden kann. Hitze als Reaktionsbeschleuniger, Kälte als Reaktionsverzögerer


(Kälte-Schock) Test zur Untersuchung der Wärmebeständigkeit von Kantenklebern und Elastizität- und Haftvermögen von Oberflächenmaterialien im Temperaturwechsel warm /kalt: 60` + 60 ° C / 60` -21 ° C abwechselnd = 1 Zyklus. Geprüft werden Bauteile als Gesamtbewertung bis zur Rissbildung.

Caustic soda

Dangerous goods law covers relocation, acceptance and delivery of the goods as well as temporary stops in the course of carriage.

Coloured wood

Coloured woods are mostly native hardwoods which attract attention by their intensive colouring. However, you will find special textures and growth peculiarities under this term as well. Birch, pear tree, ash, elsberry, hornbeam, cherry, lime tree, walnut, red alder and elm are the main species of coloured wood. As a consequence of the trend towards oak in all its variations, in the German parquet sector coloured woods have currently receded considerably into the background, although many of them have proven their good suitability as flooring wood in the past.

Calander Coating
Cellulose nitrate lacquer

Also known as Nitro lacquer, CN-Lack, NC-Lack. In terms of quantity, cellulose nitrate lacquers still represent the greatest amount of furniture lacquers. The mostly easy to handle NC lacquers dry by purely physical means by flashing off the organic solvent. The dried coating can be dissolved at any time with the appropriate solvent. This allows problem-free repair or restoration. The solids content is generally between 15 and 30%. In the current climate, the relatively high proportion of solvent caused by this leads directly to conflicts with the Laws on Emissions Control (TA-Luft/VOC).

The resistance of NC coated surfaces is acceptable for furniture for interior decoration both in terms of chemical and mechanical stresses, but insufficient for kitchen,

bathroom, office furniture and blockboard.

Chemical resistance

Resistance of lacquer films to the effect of gases, liquids and solids of a chemically aggressive type, e.g. to lyes and acids. (Wood and furniture components DIN 68861)

Chemical drying

a chemical reaction, which can be influenced, takes place by means of hardeners that are mixed in or already in the lacquer. Heat to accelerate the reaction, cold to delay it

Chemical drying

a chemical reaction, which can be influenced, takes place by means of hardeners that are mixed in or already in the lacquer. Heat to accelerate the reaction, cold to delay it

Cold check test

(cold shock) test for investigating the heat resistance of edgebanding and the elasticity and adhesive power of surface materials when temperatures change from warm to cold: 60` + 60°C/60` -21°C alternately = 1 cycle. Components are tested as an overall evaluation right up until cracks form.

Coating properties

of a pigmented material is its ability to hide the colour or difference in colour of the substrate. The term 'opacity' should be avoided

Colour wheel

this shows the relationship between the different colours and allows shades to be balanced. These are divided into:

Primary colours - red, yellow and blue

Secondary colours - green, violet, orange.

Complementary colours, supplementary colours, a colour stimulus, which when superimposed supplements that of any given other to create full white


synthetic, organic colourants in the transparent and glazed fields. Colourants are soluble pigments that are acid or alkaline

closed-pore coating

Coating of wood surfaces with thick coats of lacquer and good intermediate sanding enabling a smooth 'glass-like' surface.

Curtain coating

Curtain coating of lacquer with curtain coaters. The lacquer is pumped out of a container into a coating head with adjustable coating slits/lips from where it is discharged (mostly under high pressure) and as such forms a constantly flowing curtain of lacquer, the excess of which is caught in a channel and fed back into the lacquer container. The item to be worked on is carried through the flowing curtain of lacquer by means of a suspended conveyor belt. Uniform amounts to be applied of 60 - 300g/m² are obtained


Material whose presence causes chemical reactions in other materials or influence their progress without changes to itself


Chemical product for binding (flocculating) the lacquer in addition to the spray booth water (debonding). In general enhances the lye content of the water


Adhesion of atoms and molecules of the same type. The resulting forces are called cohesive forces. They are strongest with solids, small with liquids and very small with gases. (=internal adhesion)


A plant-derived resin, extracted as gum rosin or wood rosin. No longer used due to its acidic nature, low melting range, incompatibility with other raw materials and its brittleness in its unaltered form for the purposes of coating, as a result it is mostly modified (thermal, esterification, etc.)

Combination stains

the various effects required in practice can be achieved with combinations of dissolved colourants, colour-forming chemicals, pigments and binding agents. E.g. smoked stains for oak, genuine mahogany stains for mahogany, bleaching stains for lightening, etc. Combination stains are stains with approx. 30% organic solvents and are water soluble, e.g. ethanol and water


Irregular forming of cracks in lacquers. Also used for effect with crackle lacquer


Irregular forming of cracks in lacquers. Also used for effect with crackle lacquer


Where lacquers meet on surfaces with slight impurities due to wax, fats or other release agents, the lacquer comes away from these places and dries with craters, which requires thorough sanding-down and re-coating of the surfaces. This is particularly noticeable with unsaturated polyester lacquers. In part, this is also due to the lacquer entering pores or grooves

Cooling zone

is the third zone in the circulating heat dryer. Cooling is required in particular with thermoplastic lacquers to avoid difficulties when unstacking (temp. approx. 30 - 35°C, high air speeds

Crackle finish

Effect lacquer that displays web-like cracks after drying

Coating thickness

How the material is used, the drying speed, adhesion and, in part, the mechanical and chemical properties of the lacquer film as well all depend on the coating thickness. The thickness of the dry coat is obtained from the thickness of the wet coat and the solids content of the coating (100 m at 50% solids content gives a dry coat thickness of 50 m). The thickness of the wet coat is determined with a 'wet coat thickness measurer', and the thickness of the dry coat with a micrometer in m = micron


is hardening where the molecules are enlarged by energy beams, e.g. UV, IR or electron beams

Column dryer

also referred to as vertical dryer or rack dryer. For reasons of space, flat channel driers cannot be used with coating systems that require a long drying period, therefore vertical dryers are used. Column dryers are also divided into three zones - evaporation, heating and cooling

CHD - circulating heat drying

Here, large blowers are used to direct heated air (50 - 80°C) at an air speed of approx. 5m/s onto the material to be dried. This involves three areas: Evaporation, heating, cooling off

CMR substances

CMR substances are substances that are categorised as carcinogenic, , mutagenic or toxic to reproduction.

So-called CMR substances posess one or more of the following properties: C= carcinogenic (causes cancer)
M = mutagenic (causes genetic mutation) and
R = toxic to reproduction (causes issues with reproduction)

There are also the categories according to the CLP Regulation: CAT 1A (proven in humans) und CAT 1B (proven in animal experiments)


if the NC top coat is applied to the NC base coat, the solvents contained in the top coat dissolve the surface of the already dried base coat, and in doing so form a bond between both coats. When laying different coating systems on top of each other, too much dissolving may raise the substrate and wrinkle the surfaces


dulling refers to where a clear, transparent layer of lacquer appears 'grey' and is no longer transparent due to the lacquer film peeling away from the wood fibre (no bonding with brittleness or moisture seeping in)

Decopaint directive (ChemVOCFarbV)

The "Solvents-containing paints- and lacquers directive (ChemVOCFarbV)" - better known as "Decopaint"-directive, is the implementation of the EC-"Decopaint"-directive 2004/42/EG into German law and is valid beneath the VOC-directive (solvents consumption max 5 t/a in Germany). The directive relates to the coating of components like windows, doors, flooring, stairs and wall and ceiling panellings. Furniture is excluded from the "Decopaint"-directive. From 1stJanuary 2007 on, lacquer manufacturers are only permitted to put products on the market, which do not exceed the defined maximum VOC-contents (VOC=organic solvents). These limiting values count for the ready-made product, i.e. including all additions of hardeners, thinners and additives. For this concern 12 product categories with limiting values for solvent-based and waterbased products are defined. A second step of the "Decopaint"-directive with further reduced VOC-limiting values takes effect on 1st January 2010. All "Decopaint"-conform materials must be labeled by the manufacturers with specific information. The label must be placed in a horizontal and readable way bearing data of the valid VOC-limiting value of the product category concerned, the real maximum VOC-limiting value of the ready-made product (incl. hardener, thinner and additives) and the product category applied.


"The separation of different liquids or solids from a liquid mixture by exploiting the different boiling points. The liquid is evaporated by increasing the temperature and then by cooling the condensed distillate".


(lat.) verb for diffusion

Digital printing technology

Digital printing technology has developed extremely in recent years. In many areas, surfaces are now printed digitally in a continuous process, and at breathtaking speed. Digital printing has become indispensable, be it in flooring, coatings in the wood-based materials industry or decorative elements made of glass. Even the use for individual one-off pieces in interior design has become a reality thanks to digital printing: For example, your customer can have his holiday picture printed on the shower enclosure or his favourite dish depicted on the kitchen front. To prepare the substrate for printing, special primers are needed to ensure reliable adhesion to the substrate such as glass, HDF or plastic-based boards. These primers from Hesse are optimally matched to the printing inks to turn the surfaces into an inspiring experience. To protect the printed motifs, a finishing varnish is applied to reliably protect the print from scratching and staining. Rely on Hesse's wide-ranging experience when selecting your varnish products in the digital printing process.

DIN 4102 Behavior of building materials and components in fire

Behavior of building materials and components in fire according to DIN 4102 In part 1 of the DIN 4102 technical terms of fire protection, demands, tests and labellings for building materials are defined.

There are following categories:

Building material class A Non-flammable building materials

Building material class B Flammable building materials

Building material class B1 Hardly combustible building materials

Building material class B2 Normally inflammable building materials

Building material class B3 Easily inflammable building materials

The behavior of hardly combustible building materials in fire is determined by a test in a fire shaft. For 10 minutes, 4 panels each of 1 m length are treated with a gas burner from below. The test is passed, if the not-burned medium rest length is at least 15 cm (for raw panels; for coated panels the coating may cause an impairment by maximum 2 cm) and other criterions are fulfilled. Hardly combustible coating materials are tested on hardly combustible fibreboards according to DIN 4102-B1. When the test is passed, a general technical certificate can be applied for. In order to fulfill the demands of building material class B1, according to DIN 4102-B1 lacquers may only be applied in defined maximum application quantities on hardly combustible carriers according to DIN 4102-B1. Normal wood and wood materials are classified as normally flammable and remain building materials of class B2, even after application of a hardly combustible lacquer.

DIN 53160 Determination of the colour resistance of articles of daily use

In the year 1994, the former DIN 53160 (test of coloured children’s toys regarding the resistance to saliva and sweat) has been completely withdrawn. In October 2002, a new version, which is now extended to articles of daily use, has been published as pre-standard in two parts:

DIN V 53160-1: Test with saliva simulation

DIN V 53160-2: Test with sweat simulation

In this test procedure, filter paper strips are soaked with the simulation solutions, put on the surface to be tested and covered with scotch tape. After 2 hours of reaction at 37°C, the stripes are removed, dried and checked regarding possible stainings. The evaluation is made by comparison with the gray scale, where the intensity of the staining is indicated as level of the gray scale (level 1 = strong discoloration to level 5 = no discoloration).

DIN EN 71-3 Safety of toys

Migration of specific elements acc. to DIN EN 71-3 This European standard with the status of a German standard, lays down a test procedure and limiting values for the migration of toxic elements (a.o. arsenic, barium, lead, cadmium, chrome, mercury) from the surface of toys' materials. The coat to be tested undergoes an extraction with diluted acid. Here, the conditions correspond to the whereabouts of the substance in the digestive track in case of swallowing. The share of soluted and so biologically available elements is quantified, converted in 1 kg of toys and compared with the limiting value existing for every element. Only if all figures remain under the limiting values, the demands according to DIN EN 71-3 are fulfilled

DIN beaker/DIN seconds = viscosity

The viscosity of lacquer is given in DIN seconds at 20°C and as a rule measured with a DIN beaker holding 100 ccm and a 4 mm nozzle. The most common design is an aluminium beaker. A measuring nozzle is placed at the end of the funnel-shaped bottom. The beaker is dipped like a ladle into the lacquer timing starts as soon as it is taken out. As soon as the stream of lacquer flowing out of the nozzle breaks off for the first time, timing is stopped and this time is given in seconds.


(lat.) to scatter, spread, i.e. to distribute, wet and homogenise pigments and fillers in film-forming solutions widely through the primary grains


materials with a high molecular weight that are generally hard and amorphous and remain rigid until they reach their decomposition temperature. The macro molecules are chemically linked (by so-called primary valencies) closely with each other. Thermosetting polymers do not become soft at high temperatures either and under load behave elastically with only slight deformation, e.g. UF-, MF-, PF-, RF resins, UP, EP and PUR


(removing the lye or stain) in order to rectify a defective coating or mistake with the lacquer in the item worked on. Often, the whole coat of lacquer needs to be removed and this is referred to as 'delacquering'. It is important to identify what type of lacquer film needs to be removed as the binding system, the degree of cross-linking and the thickness of the coating are of vital importance. There are three different ways of delacquering:

1. physically by means of mechanical methods such as sand blasting/sanding or by means of thermal methods (only with metals).

2. chemically by means of pastes containing solvents with an acidic and/or alkaline component.

3. thermally by means of thermally active products (only with metals). Environmental provisions and statutory requirements are to be strictly complied with in all procedures

Dangerous goods

The term dangerous goods refers to materials or objects that, due to their nature, their characteristics or their state, in connection with being carried, may present a danger for public safety and order, in particular for the general public, public property, the life and limb of people and animals and safety of items.

Dangerous material

Materials, preparations and products referred to by the Law relating to chemicals. They are explosive, oxidising, highly flammable, extremely flammable, flammable, toxic, very toxic, harmful to health, corrosive, irritant, sensitising, carcinogenic, toxic to reproduction, mutagenic or harmful to the environment. The Dangerous Materials Law covers dangers arising when handling and storing as opposed to the Dangerous Goods Law, that covers the dangers during transport.

Degree of gloss

one measure of the degree of gloss in a coating of lacquer's reflectivity. In line with DIN 52230, the degree of gloss of a surface is determined with a reflectometer. The following applies:

Technical Information:

Table of gloss levels

Dissolving capacity

is the ability of liquids, pastes, etc. to penetrate a specific material at an appropriate speed, reduce its viscosity and homogenise it

Dull sanded

(Finely sanded lacquer)

A closed-pore polyester surface is, for example, sanded matt. In doing so the polyester surface sanded with a 320 grain is sanded with 000 grade steel wool strips or also synthetic fleece with fine abrasives. Mat paste is used for this

Drying out

depending on its solids content, a lacquer film will collapse after application with the pores in the wood standing out as depressions

Dust dry

The top coat achieved at the timber plant for processing need to be dust dry in the shortest possible time in order to allow as little as dust as possible to deposit itself in any lacquer that is still sticky. A part is dust dry if the lacquer has dried out so much that it has gelled (a skin has formed on the surface to which dust no longer sticks)


Small parts or even supports are dipped into an appropriately sized container filled with lacquer an pulled out again. When pulled out too quickly, too much lacquer remains stuck to the parts, and when pulled out too slowly, a thinner coating remains and the so-called 'drip streaks' are smaller. Minor parts can be dipped by hand, although it is better to dip with the appropriate facilities. Bulk items and small parts are dipped in so-called screen baskets

Dry separation

Dry separation refers to the overspray with different spray procedures being caught/absorbed by a filter mat (paper or fibre layer mat), perforated deflector plate or a lamella curtain. PTFE is also separated = Teflon coated filer cartridges are used

Drying speed

can also be increased in artificial chambers or channels. It is often enough for any solvent vapours released to be vacuumed away to achieve a noticeable increase in the drying speed

Drying errors

Arise, for example, if polyester lacquer has been directly applied to exotic woods such as rose wood or teak without prior insulation, where wood contents, so called inhibitors, escape and partially or completely prevent the polyester lacquer from drying or, as may apply, hardening. Contact adhesive joints can also suffer errors in the polyester lacquer hardening. A drying error can also be found with conifers that are very rich in resin, such as Swiss stone pine or Oregon pine, due to undissolved, swollen resin in the case of NC lacquers. Attention is also to be paid to this with wax putty under the top coat

Drying systems

There are four different systems:

Physical drying: The solvents evaporate. Physical drying is accelerated by higher temperatures and air speeds as good as with radiation drying. Physically dried films remain solvent.

Oxidative drying: Complete hardening is by means of absorbing oxygen. The hardening process can only be accelerated by heavy metal salts in the form of siccatives and by means of increased temperatures.

Complete chemical hardening: Complete hardening is due to a chemical reaction. This is accelerated greatly due to a rise in temperature and airspeed as well as by means of radiation drying. Chemically dried films are insolvent, therefore never chemical on physical!

Thermal drying: Complete hardening is achieved by high temperatures (>100°C), therefore this procedure is not suitable for wood and wooden materials. This involves so-called baked lacquer

Drum coating

Small parts can benefit from being sanded in drum machines and then also being coated with special drum lacquers. The (small) parts to be treated are placed in the drum where they come into contact with the added sanding or lacquer particles due to the rotation of the drum. The speed is about 10 - 30 rpm. (Depending on the size of the drum) the sanding process takes a few hours. This process is mainly used with small parts such as, among other things, figures

DGNB eligibility

The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen (DGNB e. V. – German Sustainable Building Council) is a non-profit NGO dedicated to developing and promoting methods and solutions relating to sustainable planning, construction and use of structures. The core of its activities involves the configuration and expansion of a certification system for sustainable buildings.


in order to balance the absorbency of cross-cut and long-cut wood, defects in the wood or spongy areas, the wooden surfaces are treated with an equalising product, but not where subsequently stained with chemicals, rather by 'EP staining' instead. The term equalisation is used where different tones of wood are balanced by means of bleaching, staining or dying


elasticity refers to the ability of a material to change shape without tearing or breaking, and to return to its original shape once the force is no longer applied.


materials with a high molecular weight having rubber-like properties noted for the wide-meshed, thermostable cross-linking of the chain molecules whose movement is partially restricted by this. They are extremely malleable even at room temperature and also at correspondingly higher temperatures, and quickly return to their original shape when the load is removed. Elastomers cannot be melted and on the whole are insoluble, but do however expand in some organic solvents, e.g. rubber, silicon, polyisoprene, etc.

Electrostatic coating


here, an electric field is created between the coating device and the item being worked on that charges the lacquer being sprayed (by means of a spray column, rotational bell painting, spray disk or gun) (40-90 kV voltage and 0.2 mA current). The droplets of lacquer attach themselves to the item being worked on according to the direction of the electrical field lines, and in doing so the rear is partially covered as well. The prerequisite for this procedure is to have a certain amount of electrical conductivity, something that metals always have, with wood requiring a minimum moisture content of 8-10% and the spray booth requiring air humidity of 60-70%. The advantage of this procedure lies in application being mostly waste-free, as practically all of the material sprayed hits the item being worked on. This is particularly significant when coating table and chair structures, frames, etc. A hand-held electrostatic spray gun is used for applying the lacquer. In the same way, this procedure is suitable for powder coatings. Specialist guns with external charging or another specialist system are required for water-dilutable coating systems. This waste-free coating procedure requires a flashpoint of over 21°C

Emissions, emissions declaration

.... are air contamination, noises. Light, heat, rays, vibrations or similar phenomena released by an operation or products into the environment. Therefore solvent vapours or dust, for example, discharged into the atmosphere via chimneys or exhaust pipes are referred to as emissions. The operator of a plant requiring approval produce an emissions declaration regarding the type, amount and the distribution by area and period of the air contaminants

(11. Emissions Control Regulations (BlmSchV) for Germany, components of the Swiss Clean Air Regulations (LRV) for Switzerland, components of the Coating System Regulations for Austria)

Emissions control

(CH -LRV) refers in general to all emission values and compliance with the specific conditions associated with it

Emissions declaration

regards the declaration by the operator regarding a system requiring a permit with regard to the type, quantity and distribution in terms of location and period of contaminants in the air discharged by the system over a specific amount of time, as well as the conditions for discharge. Implementation provisions in this respect are contained in the 11. Emissions Control Regulations (BlmSchV) for Germany, components of the Swiss Clean Air Regulations (LRV) for Switzerland, components of the Coating System Regulations for Austria and the expected type A or B SMP (Solvent Management Plan) Regulations for the EU

Emissions factor

(Germany) represents the ratio between the mass of emissions and the mass of materials created or processed. (Fuels or raw materials used or the amount of energy or products used or created)


(Germany) is the ratio between the mass of an air-contaminating material emitted in the exhaust gas to the mass of these components supplied with the fuels or raw materials

Emission levels

as defined by the technical guidelines for preserving the quality of air (TA-Luft) discharged by a system. Emissions are given as the mass of materials emitted with regard to the mass per unit volume (g/m3 or mg/m3), mass of the emitted materials with regard to the time as mass flow (kg/h or mg/h) or ratio of the mass of the emitted materials to the mass of the products produced or processed as a mass ratio (kg/t or g/t)


subtle distribution of a liquid into another that cannot be mixed with it (e.g. milk). Oil and water by means of emulsifying agents

Epoxy resins


are dual-component systems where aromatic hydroxyl groups are bound with epichlorhydrins or amines

Earthy colours

Produced by preparing naturally occurring white or coloured earth by elutriation, cleaning or grinding. Different colour tones can be obtained by burning.


electrostatic application of electrically (-) charged coating systems (lacquer or powder) to earthed (+) objects by charge balancing. See electrostatic coating


Reactive products (acetates) of organic acids with alcohols, mostly with a characteristic, fruity smell. Esters dissolve fats, oils, nitrocellulose and, in part, shellac resins. They are also useful starting materials for chemical synthesis

Ex. protection

are safety devices for protecting motors (JP44), bulbs (JP54), switches, rooms, etc. from explosion. Future EU Regulations are to be observed


With Excimer technology, a wet UV high-gloss coated surface is moved through a chamber with low or no oxygen. This is done by feeding in nitrogen. The surface shrinks in the chamber. The degree of gloss produced depends on the corresponding degree of shrinkage. The surface is then cured. "Mattifying lacquer top coats The physical microfolding created with the 172 nm Ecximer lamp (Excirad 172) is possible without adding matting agents in UV and ESH lacquers. Gloss levels from 1 to 20 are easily achieved. In addition to the radical polymerisation of the acrylate groups, the energetic, short-wave 172 nm radiation leads to additional cross-linking of the monomers. This significantly increases the surface hardness.

Benefits of physical matting:

• matting with subsequent curing in a single process step

• perfect reproducibility

• no additional matting agents

• extremely low gloss level

• excellent matting effect

• increased surface hardness compared with normal Hg UV curing

• pleasant feel

• suitable for nanocomposite lacquers with extreme scratch and abrasion resistance

• increased chemical resistance

• anti-fingerprint effect


• Nitrogen feed is necessary

For more information, please see: https://www.iot-gmbh.de/uv-technik/excimer

Source: IOT GmbH

Explosive protection document

Document under the German Company Health and Safety Regulations that every employer must have produced by 31.12.2005 if it can not be ensured that hazardous potentially explosive atmospheres can form.

Escape and rescue routes

Escape and rescue routes are an essential part of every company's health and safety strategy. They must always be taken into consideration when not only planning buildings, but also when undertaking further developments. Escape and rescue routes are to be kept constantly clear and marked accordingly.

Equipment category

Classification of equipment depending on the required degree of protection. (Zones) G = Gas atmosphere 1G = Zone 0, Zone 1, Zone 2 suitable 2G = Zone 1 , Zone 2 suitable 3G = Zone 2 suitable D = Dust atmosphere 1D = Zone 20, Zone 21, Zone 22 suitable 2D = Zone 21, Zone 22 suitable 3D = Zone 22 (does not apply to conductive dusts)

Edge loss

Edge loss refers to the lacquer running off from where it is most needed (edge stress - caused by shrinkage stress and the effect of gravity) where thixotropic lacquer is not used on edges (in particular sharp edges and chamfers)

Emergency exits, exits

Emergency exits are structural openings provided for emergencies. As a rules these are doors, but can also be hatches, exits, windows or other escape openings in the building. The number and location of the emergency exits depend on the dangers at the respective plant or section and the number of people present. As a matter of principle, in the event of danger it must be ensured that everyone is able to exit the area quickly and safely.

Ethyl alcohols

Ethyl alcohol, ethanol, alcohol. Ethyl alcohol is obtained by fermenting natural products containing alcohol (beer, wine, etc.), sugar (molasses, sugarbeet, fruit, etc.) and starch (potatoes, corn, rice, grain, etc.) after prior saccharification. It is also produced from saccharification of the wood from by-products of cellulose production, and synthetically from acetylene (carbide ethyl alcohol, mineral spirit). Pure alcohol is clear, flows easily and burns with a clear, pale flame. Boiling point 78°C. For technical purposes the alcohol is denatured with acetone, turpentine, methyl alcohol, etc. depending on how it is used, therefore it is unfit for human consumption. Generally used as a solvent in the manufacture of matting compounds, polishes and lacquers

Environmental protection

All measures for protecting humans, animals, plants, the atmosphere, water, the ground and up to cultural and material possessions from harmful environmental influences are covered by the term 'environmental protection'. Examples of these harmful influences can be air, water and ground contamination or noise. The best known legal provisions for everyday operations are the German Federal Emissions Protection Act and the Hazardous Incident Regulations.

Electron beam hardening (ESH)

Highest possible resistance, fast systems, high coating thicknesses. Ideal terrain for Hesse ESH lacquers. Hesse ESH lacquers are dried using the so-called electron beam curing (ESH, EBC Electron-Beam-Curing). Electrons are beamed onto the applied lacquer, unsaturated double bonds of the binding agents in the lacquer are cross-linked and a durable lacquer layer is created. This process is mainly used in film coating, but also in the coating of wood and wood-based materials such as doors. Compared to conventional UV-cured varnishes, there are the following advantages:

- Better scratch resistance
- Significantly less heating of the substrate
- Stronger curing
- Better stain resistance
- Faster turnaround times
- No limits to strong pigmentation
- Formulation of the coatings without photoinitiators

In the Hesse development department, ESH lacquers (lacquers for electron beam curing) are developed with the help of our own ESH plant. The formulation is specially adapted to your requirements.

Embossing (DLE)

New paths in the production of structured surfaces can be taken with Digital Lacquer Embossing (DLE). The process was developed by the machine manufacturer Hymmen. How does it work? In DLE, an ink is printed into a wet lacquer film, which displaces the lacquer at this point. An indentation is created and fixed after curing. This printed pore corresponds to the décor underneath and allows the look and feel of a décor to "merge". Some of our customers already use this process, naturally in combination with the innovative lacquers from Hesse.

Flashing off

also evaporating, is the partial or total evaporation of the volatile parts before the film has finished forming and/or a further coating system can be applied.

Flash-off zone

... is the area in the circulating heat dryer with temperatures of between 30 and 50°C and low air speed for forming a bubble-free film.

free of aromatic compounds

The latests lacquers whose solvents are free from so-called ring hydrocarbons (benzene, toloul). Contribute to reducing health risks!


is the concentration of pigments at the surface of a coating under a layer (this phenomenon is desired with metallic effect pigments and is also called 'leafing'). The term flocculation is not to be used here as a synonym. The term 'to flocculate' is also used with dip coating. Items being worked on flocculate if their specific weight is less than that of the lacquer

First aid

The company must ensure that after a workplace accident immediate first aid is provided and, in the event of an emergency, medical assistance is arranged. It is obliged to make facilities available for the first aid material as well as notification devices, rescue equipment and means of transport. First aid stations are to be ensured according to the size of the company and danger. Trained first-aiders are also to be appointed and, depending on the size of the company, medical staff are to held on standby

Film former

is that component of the binding agent essential for creating the film (the base of the lacquer film). There is a difference between dependent and independent film formers. Independent film formers are those that enable a film to form on their own, i.e. without adding other substances, with or without the effect of oxygen. Dependent film formers are ones that only allow a film to form in suitable mixtures. We need to differentiate between film formers and film components, e.g. pigments and fillers are film components but they are not film formers

Film thickness

Thickness of a hardened film coating, measured in m (m = 1/1000 mm)

Film defects

are faults on and in the coating, mostly named according to their form or appearance. Terms such as craters, curtains, runs and pinpricks are used to label film defects


The flashpoint gives the lowest temperature at which a mixture of vapours (solvent air) over a liquid can be ignited by a naked flame. Every flammable liquid has a specific temperature at which so much vapour develops that bringing it close to an ignition source creates a small flame. The flashpoint is not to be confused with the ignition point or ignition temperature. It is only used to measure the flammability of the vapours due to a naked flame above the air-liquid level. As a result, the flashpoint does not give the temperature of the flame.

In response to the question: "Explosion protection for the electrical equipment, yes or no?", the flashpoint of the processed materials is crucial, where the Flp threshold is set at 21°C.

Where ready-for-use products are used, the flashpoint of the ready-for-use material is decisive for the electrical installations of the coating area.

Where, on the other hand, the lacquer is prepared as ready-to-use in the coating area, the lowest flashpoint is decisive, whether it be of the lacquer, the solvent or the thinning agent. Lacquer and solvent storage areas, are in practice also to be regarded mostly as being at risk of explosions if the ambient temperature cannot be safely maintained below the lowest flashpoint of the substances stored there.

For coating where electricity is present, i.e. for electrostatic coating, only lacquers with a flashpoint over 21°C can be used.

Example flashpoints:

- Acetone - 19°C

- Benzene - 8°C

- Toluol + 7°C

- Xylol + 23°C

- Timber turpentine + 31°

Fleck formation during staining

- resin removal forgotten

- defective wood-sanding

- irregular stain application

- insufficient wiping

Flow properties

The specific weight, frictional resistance, molecular size and weight, and the temperature affect the flow properties of a surface material


pouring lacquer over the object to be coated or, as may apply, submerging it in lacquer and capturing the excess lacquer that flows off. As no large dipping basins need to be filled here, less lacquer is required than with dipping. Flow-coating has particular benefits with parts with complicated shapes and that are difficult to access. Flow-coating is normally undertaken with automatic systems where the viscosity, temperature and speed of movement are matched to each other (but manual operation is also possible). These are divided into: Transit flow-coating and dip flow-coating


are semi-rigid to soft surface tempering materials that are applied continually from the roller to the substrate by means of an appropriate system by using glue or adhesive. The laminate foils available are divided into three groups:

1. Foils based on resin-impregnated papers such as priming foils for sealing, polyester resin-impregnated laminates and mixed resin polymerisation impregnated paper foils.

2. Thin paper foils on slightly impregnated, late-weight papers for subsequent possible coating (priming foils, decorative foils, finishing foils).

3. Substrate-less plastic foils on PVC, ABS, UP or PP bases for decorative or finishing foils

Foil coating

Single- and dual-component SH Hydro lacquer systems for coating foil (e.g. decorative foils) on an industrial scale.

Fillers in adhesives

are solid, non-self-adhesive, non-volatile materials non-soluble in adhesive that reduce the consumption of basic adhesive materials and prevent the excessive adhesive force of the adhesive. They are selected according to the intended use (e.g. to prevent adhesive bleeding, to fill gaps) and they use shrink contraction to remove any resulting stresses. The following are used as neutral fillers: Wood flour, rock flour, shell flour, gypsum (calcium sulphate); e.g. magnesium carbonate


Blemishes where the veneer is not evenly bonded with the substrate that appear as ridges in appearance when wetted or stained, while they are barely visible when dry. Certain factors need to be taken into account to avoid this: fat-free additions, clean and even surface prior to glueing, consistency of the glue, correct pressing time, temperature and pressure

Formation of cracks

Where cracks run parallel to the wood fibres or glue or structure joints such as parapet joints, etc., then the substrate needs to be looked at for the cause of the cracks forming. Cracks forming a web under the surface normally involve cracks in the lacquer, which either originate from the composition of the lacquer or from coatings being too thick. In this way, for example, NC buffing lacquer can lead to cracks forming with layers that are too thick, just as with AC lacquer applied with too high a proportion of hardener. Where there is doubt about the formation of cracks, then the lacquer in question can be sprayed at the corresponding thickness onto a glass slide, which behaves completely neutrally, to be studied after drying for the formation of cracks

Flame retardant

The respective fire safety regulations require wooden surfaces in public buildings, emergency exits, etc. to be flame-retardant. Rafters can be made flame-retardant by soaking with special salts in an aqueous solution. So-called flame-retardant salts can be applied to wall claddings and other such items. These lacquers are often water-soluble and do not provide great levelling and only very reluctantly drying coatings. Special SH or DD lacquers with corresponding test certificates are better. However, DIN 4102 1B specifies flame-retardant chipboard and wood materials for wood lacquer systems and coatings


is the process by which white or grey filler is worked by hand or with a putty applicator in order to keep pores filled and layers formed for pigment coating. There are also settings for spraying, pouring and rolling putty

Facilities requiring monitoring

"There are facilities that present a particular danger for employees and third parties and are subject to particular monitoring. These facilities are called 'facilities requiring monitoring'. Facilities requiring monitoring are defined in Art.2 para. 7 of the German Equipment and Product Safety Act (GPSG)".

Finishing lacquers

are used as the final finish on a pre-treated surface and are applied in one process. Degree of gloss by agreement

German Company Health and Safety Regulations

(BetrSichV) Health and safety regulations for the provision of work resources and their use at work, regarding safety when operating facilities that require monitoring and the organisation of company protection in the workplace


Regulations for dangerous goods safety advisers.


Law regarding the carriage of dangerous goods (Carriage of Dangerous Goods Law).


German Dangerous Goods Regulations regarding domestic and cross-border carriage of hazardous goods by road. (Dangerous Goods by Road Regulations)


Provisions regarding the domestic and cross-border carriage of dangerous goods by road and rail GGVSE (German) - Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road and Rail Provisions

Glow temperature

is the lowest temperature of a heated open surface that ignites a 5 mm layer of dust deposited on it

Greyish haze

levels of relative humidity by over 90% in the summer months preventing moisture from being absorbed by the ambient air any longer immediately after the lacquer has been applied and appears, particularly on dark surfaces, as greyish haze. This can also occur if the primer and finishing lacquers do not 'take'


Originally transparent lacquer or base that has been lightly stained in order to allow as much of the wood as possible to show through after application with hardly any change in shade. Modern glazes are thin wood coatings based on lacquer resins that penetrate deep into the wood and on the whole still contain water-repellent, anti-parasitic additives for improving their qualities. They may be clear or pigmented in various shades. We distinguish between internal and external glazes. Wood glazes without fungicide are only intended for use inside. They do not protect against fungal infestation. Clear glazes are also only intended for use inside. They do not contain pigments and in the outdoors do not provide sufficient protection against UV rays. The coating industry also offers thick-film glaze alongside thin-film glazes. Both types have their own particular advantages. Thick-film glazes form a visible, light gloss film on the wood. They provide good protection against moisture and last for a relatively long period. Thin-film glaze, on the other hand, are easier to handle. They penetrate very deeply and accentuate the wood. They provide even protection against the elements without flaking and can be renewed with minimal effort

Glue penetration

Incorrect glue viscosity when varnishing or defective veneering (cracks) causes the glue to penetrate the veneer (penetration) leading to faults in the colour or structure of the surface coat that are visible after staining and coating with lacquer. Attention is to be paid to a clean surface, the viscosity of the glue, the amount applied and compliance with the pressing conditions in order to provide glue from penetrating. Glue penetration can also be reduced with coarse pore timbers by means of appropriate extenders. Gluten glue can be washed out with wood soap, white glue with warm water, provided it has not hardened. Reactive resin glues cannot be removed


The term Giscode stands for Hazardous Substance Information System Code and was developed by the Berufsgenossenschaften der Bauwirtschaft (BG Bau). It is a labelling system in which products with comparable health hazards are grouped into product groups. The coding consists of a letter/number combination that clearly assigns the product to a product group. For example, D1 stands for solvent-free dispersion installation materials, and RE3 for epoxy resin products, solvent-containing, sensitising. To obtain specific product information, you can select a product group on the Gisbau website (= hazardous substance information system of the BG Bau) and obtain detailed hazardous substance information from the corresponding table.

Gloss level

a measure of the gloss level is the reflectivity of a coating layer. In accordance with German Industrial Standard 52230, the gloss level of a surface is determined with a reflectometer.

Details can be found in the Technical Information: 
Table of gloss levels

Health and safety in the workplace specialist

German health and safety law states that (nearly) all employees are to appoint health and safety in the workplace specialists in writing. The minimum deployment period is in line with the danger and the number of staff employed at the company. The fundamental requirements for health and safety in the workplace specialists and their roles are also set out in German health and safety law. Full- or part-time health and safety engineers, technicians or representatives with the required health and safety expertise can be appointed as health and safety in the workplace specialists.


(mechanical property) is defined as resistance to penetration by a solid body. Effects of this type can be: Pressure, rubbing and scratching. As it represents a complex parameter, the term 'hardness' is always to be used in conjunction with a test method used, such as scratch resistance or indentation resistance. The oscillation method (e.g. by using König's pendulum method in accordance with DIN 53 157), crack testing and indentation testing (e.g. the Bucholz method in accordance with DIN 53 153) are useful for determining the hardness of lacquer films


ensure the hardness of a basic adhesive material or lacquer by means of a chemical reaction, e.g. polycondensation. Acids, acid-forming salts and hydroxides are used as a solvent or powder

High solid systems

Refers to coating systems with a high solids content, therefore low-solvent lacquer systems with a 60 - 80% solids content. These systems need to be heated in order to achieve a suitable viscosity for spraying

High-speed rotation bell

a high-speed atomiser (up to 40,000 min-1) that sprays the lacquer from the gun with electrostatic spraying. Instead of the bell, a 150 - 250mm diameter disk rotating at a speed of 20,000 min-1 is sometimes used.

High boiler

also as a retarder or levelling agent in the trade. These are then used if NC lacquers do not level well or tend to blister. Only add in small amounts, otherwise the drying time is delayed significantly. A delay in drying time means waiting longer until items can be stacked and more dust deposits in the surfaces that are still not dust dry


High pressure laminate. HPL boards are pressed at a pressure of at least 70 bar and a temperature of approx. 130°C


High Solid, Low Pressure spraying (0.7 bar, where the atomising pressure is pre-heated to approx. 40°C


High volume, low pressure process. Spraying with a high volume and low pressure (0.4 - 0.6 bar), good transfer efficiency

Hydrophyllic solvents

are water-soluble organic solvents

Hydrochloric acid

Solution of hydrogen gas in water. Concentrated hydrochloric acid is a whitish, mist-emitting, clear, base metal dissolving liquid in air. Spec. weight 1.2. Hydrochloric acid salts are called chlorides, e.g. iron chloride, zinc chloride, etc. Use: Removal of drops of lime and plaster, rectification of dark flecks caused by spacers, bleaching of flecks of wood glue or in conjunction with sodium peroxide as a bleaching agent


is cloudiness that becomes visible before or after formation of the film and is not caused by external influences

Heavy metals

Metals with a density in excess of 4 grammes per cubic centimetre, e.g. iron, zinc, copper, manganese, chrome, cadmium, lead and mercury. Many heavy metals and their compounds are frowned upon for being toxic and harmful to the environment. For example, there are very strict heavy metal thresholds not only for drinking water and food, but also arable land and drainage water that may flow into water treatment plants or bodies of water

Health and Safety Signage in the Workplace

In accordance with Art. 2 of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations of the German trade association (BGV) A8, health and safety signage in the workplace are signs that - with regard to a specific object, activity or situation - provide health and safety information by means of a safety sign, a colour, an audible or visual warning, a speech or hand signal.

Hard wax oil

The term "hard wax oil" has become established for a range of oil materials without the designation being regulated, let alone standardised as a voluntary commitment or standardisation. Thus, the user/customer understands a hard wax oil to be a material that consists of drying oils and dries to a hard-wearing, matt surface with a wax-like feel. Most people want the familiar oil look. This means a low film formation on the surface and sufficient protective penetration into the wood so that you get an open-pored and breathable surface. This is usually achieved by filling and padding in the oil material. A considerably higher resistance can only be achieved on an oiled surface by applying additional layers of oil. Since this is very time-consuming and labour-intensive with spatulas and pads, one has ended up with one or two applications with a roller or similar. Since quantities of around 40 - 60 g/m² are applied per work step, a surface "painted" in this way can no longer be compared with an open-pored and breathable surface. Nevertheless, one still used a "hard wax oil". However, we have refrained from using the term "hard wax oil" so that our products stand out from the crowd.

Individual package

Packages that do not require any internal packaging to fulfil their role as a container during transport.

IMO resolution A.653(16) Behavior in fire

Behavior in fire according to IMO resolution A.653(16) According to the European directive 96/98/EG about ship's equipments, those must be tested and approved according to defined methods, in order to fulfill the international agreement for protection of human life at sea (SOLAS). Also coating materials for fixed interior installations are concerned here, whereas the low flammability of the coatings must be proved according to the criterions of the IMO-resolution A.653(16). Only after presentation of a positive test notification and the audit of the operational production process (QS-certificate) an authorized admission office will issue a EC-Certificate for building materials for the coating material. In the area of the European community this approval is valid in connection with a declaration of conformity and hint to the QS-certificate.


refers to restricting the effect of a material by the influence of another. In the case of surface coating, this refers to the restricting effect of a material on the coat of lacquer

IR radiation (infrared radiation)

Is divided into short wave (0.9 - 1,6 µm), medium wave (2.2 - 2.7 µm) and long wave (3.5 - 6 µm). It is a direct heating method by means of electronic radiation to harden (dry).

ISO standard

International Organization for Standardisation. Founded in Geneva in 1947 with the aim of facilitating the exchange of goods and services and promoting cooperation in academic, scientific, technological and economic matters by means of global standards (ISO)


chemical compounds with a terminal -NCO group that are used as a reactive partner (2-component) with polyurethane or polyacrylic lacquers. We differentiate between chain and ring compounds, yellowing and non-yellowing peroxide-resistant. Starting products for polyaddition-based lacquers, adhesives and plastics


Treating a substrate with a sealing primer, for example to hinder the effect of wood contents on the coat of lacquer, and vice versa

Iodine colour value

A specific value for the colour of transparent substances determined under specific conditions.


is a change in the boundary surface between the coating and the substrate or between individual coatings due to an imperfection, which manifests itself as a loss of adhesion and may lead to corrosion or the lacquer peeling away


The requirement for companies to instruct staff is set down in many State and trade association regulations. As such, this fundamental requirement appears in the Health and Safety Act, the Young Worker Protection Act, the Dangerous Goods Provisions or the Place of Sale provisions of the individual German Federal States. Article 4 para. 1 BGV A1 also includes this requirement: "The company shall provide the insured party with instruction on hazards arising during their activities as well as on the measures for averting them prior to starting work and then at appropriate intervals, but at least once a year". When and how often this instruction is to take place is set out in Art. 12 para. 1 of the German Workplace Protection Act as follows: "Instruction shall take place on employment, where the role changes, on the introduction of new working methods/equipment or new technology prior to the employee accepts the activity. The instruction shall be adapted to how the hazard evolves and, where required, repeated regularly". Again, Art. 4 BGV A 1 defines the intervals to be construed as regular repetition as at least "annually".

Jet drier

here, heated air (up to 100°C) is applied via a jet (round or slit opening) with an air speed of approx. 25 m/s (at the output nozzle) directly to the coating


Forms when alcohol becomes oxidised due to dehydration. The most important ketones include acetone and propanone (CH3COCH3) and methyl ethyl ketone or butanone (CH3COC2H5). Ketones dissolve oils, fats, lacquers, nitrocellulose and vinyl resins. As such, ketones are sutiable for removing a PVAc glue stain. Ketones enter the body via the skin and irritate the mucous membranes and may lead to liver and kidney damage


If you wish to use the take-back system of KBS GmbH for return and transport packaging, please note the following:

1. you can hand in the outer and transport packaging at the acceptance points belonging to the KBS system. Before handing in the packaging at a KBS collection point, you must notify KBS by sending an e-mail to info@kbs-recycling.de or by calling the service number 0211/2392280. KBS will then name the logistically closest collection point to you, taking into account the packaging material, the announced weight and your location. When notifying KBS GmbH, you must state your (company) name and your company address. You declare your consent in accordance with the provisions of the DSGVO that your (company) name and your company address may be passed on by KBS GmbH to subcontracted third parties. 2.

After registration, KBS will provide you with the KBS registration form, which must be signed by an authorised person from your company and handed in when the packaging is delivered to the KBS collection point.

3. KBS is only obliged to take back outer and transport packaging if the packaging is not mixed and free of foreign substances that are not part of the packaging.

4. please note that secondary and transport packaging will only be taken back by KBS if the pre-announcement according to para. 1 is made, the registration form according to para. 2 is handed in and the acceptance conditions in para. 3 are met.

Here is some general information on why we have joined the KBS:

We have joined the KBS. Kreislaufsystem Blechverpackungen Stahl GmbH (KBS) offers us and thus our customers an environmentally sound and economical service package for recycling their steel packaging in the Federal Republic of Germany. KBS operates on the instructions of its shareholders as a non-profit company and offers fillers and distributors a cost-effective, area-wide and efficient take-back and processing system for emptied packaging. The KBS licensing system offers you and us guaranteed, safe disposal with over 300 collection points. By joining the systems, KBS assumes the legal obligation for the filling industry to take back and recycle used steel packaging as required by the Packaging Ordinance. As a company in the filling industry, we are exempted from the legal obligation to take back our packaging sold on the German market by means of a sign usage agreement with KBS. KBS assumes this task as a "commissioned third party" in accordance with § 11 of the Packaging Ordinance and also ensures the legally required recycling of materials. In the meantime, plastic packaging is also accepted. An additional added value for our customers and ourselves. You can find one of the numerous collection points, also in your vicinity, at www.kbs-recycling.de.


When wood is limed, very interesting effects are achieved, especially with oak, as the pores are whitened. It is only effective on timber with coarse pores. The wood can be left natural or stained, then the primer is applied and under certain circumstances lightly sanded or brushed with the dust removed. The so-called lime paste consists mainly of a pore-filling liquid and synthetic white pigments, which should not be mixed too thickly, and rubbed into the pores. A pore-filling liquid should be selected that is easy to rub off again. Sanding down is done with hessian or with a so-called sanding cloth such as 'Mikrolon', or on a vibrating grinder, starting across the grain and then along it. All white traces must be removed from the surface before re-coating so that only the pores remain white leaving a contrast between the pores and the surface that is left. If the parts are even and need to remain natural, the following efficient procedure is used: spray once with thinned white spray filler and after drying sand the surfaces until they are clean and, as may apply, only white pores are left behind. Then coat as normal

Lacquer transfer efficiency

... is the ratio of the amount of lacquer transferred to the item worked on to the total amount of lacquer used.

Latent solubles

These refer to a solvent that only swells a certain material without loosening it. You need to partially stretch the lacquer and prevent the lower coating from being dissolved too much. It has a joint solvent effect in combination with a genuine soluble


Solid alkaline hydroxides, lyes, alkalis dissolved in water, e.g. caustic soda, caustic potash. Lyes turn litmus blue particularly irritate the mucous membranes of the eye (caustic soda), saponify fats, oils and resins (to lyes), attack base metals and stain wood dark (smoke).

1. Metal hydroxides - caustic potash Ca (OH)2

2. Alkali hydroxide - caustic soda NaOH - caustic soda KOH

3. Forming without metal - liquid ammonia (ammonia water) NH4OH

4. Aqueous solution of salts - soda-ash Na2CO3 - potash 2CO3

Linseed oil

Is pressed from flax seeds and solidifies by absorbing oxygen. Very compatible with a lot of solvents and resins. A good depth of penetration due to low viscosities. Cloths and rags soaked in linseed oil may spontaneously combust due to the effects of light and air (absorption of oxygen).

Light fastness

A light-fast lacquer does not turn yellow due to the effects of light. Important: When re-coating coloured and, above all, white or grey surfaces.

Light stabilisers

are primarily used to absorb UV rays for different types of lacquer.

Limited Quantities

Small amounts of dangerous goods that are specially packed and then exempted from the provisions of the ADR.

Low pressure coating

refers to the direct application of mostly single-layer, maximum dual-layer, papers (film) impregnated with melamine resin. The resin impregnation melts at a pressure of 200-300 N/cm2 and a temperature of 180°C and bonds with the substrate. After cooling the synthetic resin hardens to a resistant film. This is referred to as low pressure coating or press coating as a relatively low pressure is used. The visual effect of the surface, that may vary depending on the type of the application plate and the duration of pressing, depends on the quality of the substrates used and/or the damping effect of the structure of the coating. While primer paper or putty is necessary as an interim layer with uneven surfaces in order to achieve optimum surface stability, the surface quality of the substrate is nowadays mainly achieved with single-layer films. Special processes allow the resin paper to be worked into a ready-coated sheet with the particle mat in one procedure. This process is called the one-press process or direct coating. In general, completed substrates are coated using the two-press process

Low boiler

(Boiling point below 100°C).

An important characteristic with solvents is the evaporation time

Liquid ammonia

NH4OH. Pungent smelling, light and irritating alkaline liquid obtained by dissolving gaseous ammonia in water. The specific weight of the liquid ammonia falls as the proportion of gas increases (10% gaseous ammonia = 0.96; 30% = 0.9). Liquid ammonia is used to smoke woods containing tannin, where nice, grey-brown colour tones are achieved. The addition of liquid ammonia causes the stain to penetrate deep into the wood fibres as well as enhancing the colour tone

LED radiation technology

Energy-saving LED technologies are also being used in industry. In the field of UV coatings, UV curing systems that use LED technology have been available for several years. Hesse Lignal also sells corresponding varnishes for this technology that enable energy-saving curing. Advantages of LED coating technology:
- Low energy consumption compared to conventional UV lamps
- Very short switch-on times
- No ozone development
- Low heat load on the substrate
- Long service life of the LED modules

Mistcoat application

in order to achieve a specific matt effect, at times where the matt lacquer is not so well-developed, the surfaces have had a mistcoat of NC thinners or extremely thinned lacquer and fine atomising applied from a large distance with the spray gun

Multi-component lacquers

are all lacquers that need to be set with a hardener, catalyst, reactive accelerator or so-called adhesion promoter directly before using. These include: SH lacquer, polyester lacquer, epoxy resin lacquer, cross-linked acrylic resin lacquer as well as with isocyanate cross-linked water-based lacquers


This feature of the way humans perceive shades of colour leads to coatings with different spectral emittance curves nevertheless appearing to be the same colour under certain lighting conditions, for example under artificial light as opposed to daylight. This phenomenon is referred to as metamarism. Metamers are therefore two coatings that appear the same under one type of lighting, but do not under at least one other


Methyl alcohol, CH3OH. Obtained by distilling wood tar. Pure wood spirit is a clear, very volatile, highly flammable, toxic liquid. Spec. weight 0.8. Boiling point approx. 60°C. Used as a denaturation agent for ethyl alcohol. Consuming wood spirit can lead to eye complications, blindness and, in large quantities, death. Mostly mixed with acetone in the trade


(lat.) the movement of, for example, water to the surface

Microwave drying

Using microwaves to dry surface materials (electromagnetic waves in the frequency range of approx. 2.54 GHz, corresponding to a wavelength of 30 cm to 0.3mm). Currently has no role in drying lacquers, but does have a wide range of benefits

Mixing ratio

Measure of the ratio to which lacquer and hardener need to be mixed without adding thinner. This mixing ratio is always to be strictly adhered to as changes to the mixing ratio may have a decisive effect on the qualities.


are substances or compounds described as mono and can be bonded with polymers (multi) due to their double bonds through polymerisation. Monostyrene/polystyrene or vinyl chloride/polyvinyl chloride

Mistcoat application

in order to achieve a specific matt effect, at times where the matt lacquer is not so well-developed, the surfaces have had a mistcoat of NC thinners or extremely thinned lacquer and fine atomising applied from a large distance with the spray gun

Material safety data sheet

Material Safety Data Sheets(MSDS) are a tool for conveying safety-related information about substances and mixtures including information from the relevant chemical safety report(s) via the delivery chain to the downstream user. They are intended to provide the professional user the necessary data and recommendations for handling substances and mixtures in order for them to take the necessary precautions for protecting health, security at the workplace and protection of the environment. With every product delivery you automatically receive the associated, most up to date material safety data sheet from us. You can even quickly access the required material safety data sheet via our online product catalogue.

Noise area

A noise area is an area where noise is created and the location-specific rating level reaches or exceeds 85 dB(A) or the maximum value of the non-evaluated sound pressure level of 140 dB. Employees who spend time in noise areas are in principle exposed to the danger of hearing damage. The duration of exposure and individual rating level are decisive for any possible hearing damage where no hearing protection is used. Where there are noise areas that must be marked, a noise reduction programme must be set up and implemented.

Natural resins

are resins from a plant or animal origin

Natural lacquers

According to the definition under DIN 55945, natural lacquers are 'coating materials' from naturally occurring components that have neither been subsequently chemically modified, nor structurally amended, and that contain no synthetically manufactured components.


Natural Colour System - a Swedish proprietary colour classification system in which 1,500 shades and tones of colour are systematically arranged as perceived by the human eye. Scandinavian Colour Institute AB, Stockholm

Negative stain appearance

This is particularly glaring with coniferous wood species if these are stained, or as may apply, dyed with tar dye stains (water-soluble coloured powder stains). More colour particles become lodged in the porous, absorbent, soft growth rings than in the dense, hard ones. This leads to stronger colour application and colouring of the soft growth rings, with the hard ones remaining relatively light


where a solvent is unable to dissolve a specific material or damage the surface in various intensities, it is referred to as a non-solvent


with a low nitro group content, a highly inflammable binding agent in nitrocellulose lacquers. With an average content = celluloid for film. With a high nitro group content as gun cotton for smokeless gunpowder and explosives

Nitrocellulose wool

with a low nitro group content, a highly inflammable binding agent in nitrocellulose lacquers. With an average content = celluloid for film. With a high nitro group content as gun cotton for smokeless gunpowder and explosives

Nitric acid

HN03. An inorganic, highly irritant, transparent acid. Spec. weight 1.522; boiling point 84°C. Extracted from Chile saltpetre, nitrogen or ammonia. Except for gold and platinum, nitric acid attacks nearly all metals quickly and forms so-called nitrates with them. Use: Degreasing and light etching of metal parts (approx. 5%), so that with wood/metal putties the putty or glue has good adhesion.


NVC is the abbreviation for non-volatile component; this describes the proportion of a mixture that can be designated as non-volatile. Organic solvent or water can be present as volatile components in a mixture. In the case of lacquers, the non-volatile component could for instance consists binders or pigments.


(griech. das Duftende) aus drei atomigen Molekülen Sauerstoff (O3) aufgebautes, Bakterien und Farbstoffe zerstörendes Gas. Durch das Auftreten atomaren Sauerstoffs ist Ozon eines der stärksten Oxidationsmittel und in höheren Konzentrationen stark giftig. Ozon entsteht aus Sauerstoff durch ultraviolette Bestrahlung oder elektrische Ladungen. Sehr geringe Konzentrationen von Ozon gelten als unschädlich, höhere Konzentrationen führen beim Menschen u.a. zu Augenreizungen und Atembeschwerden

Orange peel effect

Description of the defect:  Orange peel-like defects in the levelling of the lacquer surface.

Cause of the defect: not enough material applied, material too viscous, too large a spray nozzle at too low a pressure (poor atomisation), coating dries too quickly (increased room temperature)

Defect solution:  Sand the defective surface down well with 280-320 grain and recoat with the coating used before in accordance with instructions (by adding suitable thinner if required).

Operating instructions

Operating instructions are used for informing employees of which steps are to be performed for an activity and in which sequence. As such, protective provisions are also set out in the operating instructions. Where the individual steps are difficult to set down in writing, it is recommended that what needs to be said is explained using pictures, exploded views, etc. Where operating instructions contain provisions regarding the prevention of accidents in the workplace and industrial diseases as well as the protection of health, then the right of co-determination of the works council is to be complied with in accordance with Art. 87 of the German Works Constitution Act (Betriebsverfassungsgesetz).

Odour threshold

Concentrate of odourants sensed by 50% of a group of test subjects

open-pore coating

Coating is only applied to such a depth where the wood pores are still clearly visible. In general, a repeated process with so-called coating lacquers is sufficient here.


belong along with fatty acids to the components of plant and animal fats and oils extracted from seeds or pips: Ground nut, linseed (linseed oil stand oil), rapeseed and soya oils among others. Synthetic paraffin oils are used more now - technical (contaminated) or cosmetic (acid-free, purified) as white or neutral oil

Omega spray booth

This type of spray booths is named after the shape of the Greek letter Omega. The parts run suspended from a conveyor chain into the booth and rotate about their own axis. The spray unit is in the centre of the booth an a hoisting mechanism and sprays the parts evenly. The booth is suited for both wet and dry lacquer. The advantages of these O-booths are: high transfer efficiency and low exhaust and circulating air, but they are not suitable for all parts. Especially for electrostatic and automatic coating


Organic peroxide


Surface material that does not reach the item being worked on during spraying but is sprayed around it

Oxalic acid

Oxalic acid, saccharic acid, H2C204. Organic acids whose toxic salts, oxalates, are to be found in many plants, in particular in wood sorrel and garden sorrel. Use as a bleaching agent

Oxidative drying

By absorbing oxygen (chemical reaction). In particular, linseed oil and linseed oil varnish paints and air-dried paints require larger amounts of oxygen to dry. The drying process can be accelerated by adding metal oxides, so-called siccatives


(Greek 'to smell') made of three atomic oxygen (O3) molecules, a gas that disrupts bacteria and colourants. Due to the occurrence of atomic oxygen, ozone is one of the strongest oxidising agents, and in higher concentrations is extremely toxic. Ozone is created by the effect of ultraviolet rays or electrical charges on oxygen. Very low concentrations of ozone are regarded as harmless, higher concentrations lead among other things to eye irritation and breathing difficulties among humans

Person responsible

Whoever, under their own responsibility, performs the duties in accordance with the provisions for dangerous goods on behalf of the operator or the owner of the company.

Potentially explosive atmospheres

Is a mixture of air and combustible gases, vapours, mists or dusts under atmospheric conditions in which the combustion process transfers to the unspent mixture after successful ignition.


Application of a thin, well-penetrating coat of primer in order to make the cut wood fibres sit up, to allow them to be sanded away in this position after the lacquer has dried and to create good adhesion/anchoring between the substrate and the lacquer

Priming foil

white paper resinated with melamine resin that can be glued using liquid condensation glue or condensation resin adhesive film. The surface is sanded down before coating with pigmented lacquer. When gluing with condensation glue, a generous application of glue provides additional filling and consolidation of the so-called filler film.

Paint Express

Paint Express - the lacquer factory on your doorstep: Your Paint Express Colour Center offers an almost unlimited number of shades on various colour cards with 20,000 formulas! You will be able to determine and mix the colours according to your customers’ requirements immediately. Use this opportunity to distinguish yourself from the competition by providing the kind of flexibility, speed and accuracy that today´s customers demand. Paint Express Colour Center: Our colour lacquers are mixed either using the Paint Express Flexi Mix mixing shelf as a traditional lacquer-in-lacquer process or in an even easier way using our fully automatic paste mixing system Paint Express Professional Mix.


Aliphatic hydrocarbons. With unsaturated polyesters as a protective layer to prevent problems of complete hardening due to atmospheric oxygen. Partly used as a matting agent, e.g. polyethylene wax


Rustic staining brings together various methods of working in order to lend reproduction furniture the look of having been used for years or, as may apply, the look of antique furniture. Patinating starts right with the staining of the wood by selecting suitable wood stains. Rubbing off the prominent parts of wood-carvings and profiles with steel wool is a good way to partially remove the wood stain to good effect. If a dark colour tone needs to be created across a part of or the whole surface of wood that has already been primed or coated, it is patinated with a special thin, dyed coating (patina colours). For so-called reproduction furniture, a flowing transfer from the lighter inner surface to the darker edges or frames is usual or, as may apply, the places that experience shows are sanded more are left lighter in order to hint at a certain amount of ageing


Pentachlorophenol is a strong toxin consisting of clear crystals with a slightly pungent odour. Due to its anti-bacterial and fungicidal effects, PCP was used as a pesticide and in wood preservatives indoors. In December 1989 the PCP Prohibition Regulations (Germany and many other European countries) entered into force. These regulations prohibited the manufacture, use and marketing of PCP and its compounds

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

PPE is equipment used or worn by the employees to protect them from accidents or, as may apply, harm to health. PPE may only be used if the employees cannot be protected from dangers by technical or organisational measures.

pH value

is a measurement of the concentration (more accurately: activity) of free hydrogen ions in solutions, where the negative decimal logarithm of the molecular concentration is used as the measurement. The pH scale goes from 0 - 14. At the neutral point of pH = 7, the molecular concentration is the same. Below pH 7 are the acids and above it the alkalis, where the acids become stronger as the the pH value falls and the bases as the pH value increases. The pH value was introduced by the Danish chemist S.P.L. Sorensen in 1912 to measure the concentration of hydronium ions in a solution. It influences to a great extent the course of chemical and biochemical processes and therefore plays a significant role in the production and analysis of chemicals as well as metabolic processes in many areas of nature and technology, in soil science and agriculture, timber pulping, bonding and corrosion.


only dissolve with great difficulty or hardly at all in water or solvents and need to be intensively worked into the binding solvent (ball mill, bead mill, sand mill or triple roller). For transparent and opaque materials:

Earthy colours: Chalk, gypsum, talc, quartz.

Mineral colours: Titanium oxide, zinc oxide, lithopone, iron oxide colours yellow, brown, red, black.

Coloured pigments: Compounds of chrome, cadmium and manganese


are different from matting compounds in that they are used to build up surfaces with closed pores. Depending on their composition, they are processed with the cylinder or applied by spraying or by machine and distributed by the cylinder to create a high gloss and polished out or buffed. The following different polishes exist:

Shellac polish

NC polishes

High gloss or wax polishes


is a reaction in which chain or cross-linked macro-molecules, so-called polyadducts, are formed from different low molecular weight components by internal molecular rearrangement. The reaction that takes place at room temperature as heat is generated leads to hardened end products without water or other by-products being released, as is the case with a condensation reaction. Examples of typical polyadducts are epoxy resin lacquers and polyurethane adhesives

Polyester webs

paper webs that are either coloured or covered with imitation wood whose top is coated with polyester lacquer that are placed on the market as rolls or edge material. Almost any glue can be used for sticking them on. In particular when using condensation glue, the paper underside fully absorbs the glue and completely hardens

Polyester lacquer

(UP lacquers or UPE 2C lacquers) the building blocks for polyester lacquers are polyester molecules in the form of chains containing dual-bonds along with the normal chemical bonding, and as such they are referred to as 'unsaturated'. The base lacquer is a polyester resin dissolved in styrene (vinylbenzene). In general it contains additional reaction accelerators (cobalt salts) and stabilisers. The latter should prevent polymerisation (hardening) of the base lacquer, that can be very slow without hardener as well. Organic peroxides act as hardeners to cancel the effect of stabilisers and set the reaction in motion. Hardening then proceeds at the required speed thanks to the added accelerator. In doing so the styrene bonds with the unsaturated polyester resin with substantial heat being generated. It loses its function as a solvent and becomes a component of the resin. The unsaturated UP resin is very sensitive to atmospheric oxygen and must therefore be protected from completely hardening. For this purpose, wax, paraffin or other materials are added that rise to the surface after application and protect it from air accessing it. The layer of paraffin is the cause of the surface clouding after application. After this paraffin layer has completely hardened it can be completely sanded down and be buffed to a high gloss or sanded matt. The dried lacquer film is very resistant to scratching and liquids, but not to heat, has low adhesion and is sensitive to impact. In contrast to all other lacquers, polyester lacquers contain no or only a very small amount of solvents. The main binding agent is polystyrene produced by the polymerisation of styrene by means of peroxides and metal catalysts. These agents stand out for their good filling power and resistance to chemicals and heat sources. We distinguish between glossy and paraffin polyesters. Due to the short potlife and not insignificant risk when handling the components, longer potlifes are mostly only used in industry with the appropriate equipment

Polyester boards

paper webs that are either coloured or covered with imitation wood whose top is coated with polyester lacquer that are placed on the market as rolls or edge material. Almost any glue can be used for sticking them on. In particular when using condensation glue, the paper underside fully absorbs the glue and completely hardens


Reaction of molecules of chemically similar or different materials to spatially branched and cross-linked macro-molecules simultaneous separation of water and/or other compounds. Due to the migration of by-products, substantial shrinkage stresses may arise in the bonding gaps during the setting process. Polycondensation is controlled by the effect of catalysts and, as may apply, hardening and heat. In particular, the resulting products are the do-called thermosetting polymers, to which for example urea, melamine, phenol and resorcin-formaldehyde resins belong. Acidic hardening mono-component and dual-component lacquer systems exhibit the polycondensation reactions


Joining of molecules of a reactive, i.e. unsaturated material to form macro-molecular chains that happen by dissolution of the C = C dual bond. No by-products are released in this way, also resulting in no loss of substance. Mixed polymerisation refers to the polymerisation of molecules of different materials all containing C = C dual bonds. Polymerisation is controlled by the presence of catalysts or inhibitors. The products obtained in this way are above all thermoplastics derived from acetylene and ethylene



new term for polyphenylether, a polymerisate derived from crude oil or coal. Pure polystyrene is crystal clear, hard, brittle and heat-resistant up to approx. 70°C. It can be dyed as much as desired. Polystyrene is resistant to acids, lyes, salts and alcohol. Nevertheless, it is attacked by almost all solvents. Polystyrene is easy to work with and can be glued, welded and polished. With the suitable propellant it can be foamed

Polyurethane lacquers

Other names are PUR lacquer or DD lacquer (Desmodur/Desmophen).

Just as NC lacquers, PUR lacquers can be used on all surface materials. Nevertheless, the difference consists here in that a two-component system. This means that after the addition of a precisely defined quantity, a so-called potlife is to be observed. The solids content is between 20 and 50%, which still means a relatively high solvent ratio.

PUR lacquers are first dried physically by flashing-off the solvent and then chemically by polyaddition between resin and polycyonate without splitting-off by-products.

The dried and hardened lacquer film is solvent-fast and resistant to a number of chemical and mechanical influences.

As a result, PUR lacquers are suitable for demanding items such as kitchen, bathroom and office furniture as well as table tops.

Polyvinyl acetate


Polyvinyl acetate is a polymerisate of vinyl acetate, a compound of acetylene and acetic acid. Due to its low softening temperature it is used as a binding agent and adhesive. At normal temperatures it is translucent white and relatively elastic. PVAc softens at around 80°C. Displaced with softeners and dispersed in water, it is processed into glue (dispersion glue). It is also referred to as white glue due to its colour

Positive stain appearance

By means of pre- and post-staining, tannic acids and metal salts are dissolved and stored in the wood with chemical staining, which then react with each other and in this way lead to the creation of shades of colour. Due to their greater density, hard growth rings have more substance in which even more chemicals can be stored, leading to a stronger reaction and creation of shades of colour there as well

Powder coating

With powder coating the coating material is applied to the item being worked on in the form of dry, i.e. solvent-free thermoplastic or, as may apply, thermosetting powder. The effect of heat fuses the powder particles to a cohesive film (or, as may apply, by additionally cross-linking thermosetting plastics).

Powder coating

We differentiate between thermoplastic and thermosetting powders. They are solvent-free, the transfer efficiency is very high when recovery measures are used. With electrostatic powder coating the coatings are between approx. 40 and 80 m. Coating is undertaken electrostatically or, with thermoplastic types of powder, mainly by the fluidised bed process (pre-heated items to be worked on). The coating must be heat-treated after the powder has been applied


Other descriptions are PU lacquer or DD lacquer (named after the brand name of the first binder for hardener land lacquer resin: Desmodur/Desmophen). The ‘PU’ abbreviation stands for the description of the ‘plastic’ created when the substance hardens: polyurethane.

PU lacquers, like NC lacquers, are universally usable on all surface materials. Nevertheless, the difference consists here in that a two-component system. This means that, after the precise addition of a specified quantity of hardener, the lacquer-hardener mixture will only remain ready-for-use for a certain time period without sacrificing quality (= processing time). The chemical reaction then changes the mixture so completely that it can no longer be processed without modifications. (The period of time from mixing the lacquer-hardener batch to this point is called the potlife.) Depending on the type of lacquer system used, the solids content is between about 20% and 70%. This is still a relatively high solvent content.

PU lacquers are first dried physically by flashing-off the solvent and then chemically by polyaddition between resin and polycyonate without splitting-off by-products. The dried and hardened lacquer film is solvent-fast and resistant to a number of chemical and mechanical influences.

As a result, PU lacquers are suitable for heavily used surfaces such as kitchen, bathroom and office furniture as well as table tops.


Resistance of the lacquer to PVC seals (doors).


Pure white, crystalline, toxic product. Obtained by heating gallic acid to over 200°C. It beaks down in the air (turns brown) and as a result must be stored in dark, airtight sealed bottles. As for tannin, pyrogallol is used as a pre-stain. The tones achieved in this way (after applying a post-stain) are more intensive and significantly darker as those of tannin. Pyrogallol is soluble in water, ethyl alcohol and diethyl ether

Protective glasses

Protective glasses are used as personal protective equipment with activities where there is a possibility of harm to the eyes. They are available as framed glasses or goggles. Which protective glasses are considered for which activity is established according to the risk assessment. Protective glasses are manufactured subject to specific standards. Protective glasses include not only laser protection and welding glasses, but also ski goggles and sunglasses.

Protective gloves

Protective gloves are gloves that, as personal protective equipment, protect the hands from damage due to mechanical, thermal and chemical influences as well as from micro-organisms, electrical current and ionising radiation.

Protective footwear



The shelf life of the mixture is generally referred to as potlife and give the time from mixing the components to twice the depletion time (thickening of the material).


(PVAc) Polyvinyl acetate is a polymer of vinyl acetate, a compound of acetylene and acetic acid. Because of its low softening temperature, it is used as a binder and adhesive. It is translucent white at normal temperature and relatively elastic. PVAc softens at about 80 °C. When mixed with plasticisers and finely dispersed in water, it is processed into glue (dispersion glue). Because of its white colour, the glue is also called white glue.

Phtalat softeners

Phthalates are mostly used for softening plastics. Only after they have been added does the hard and brittle polyvinyl chloride (PVC) take on elastic properties, which enables it to be used as soft plastic.

Quality assurance

Control of all materials, checking of characteristics to reflect specific set parameters from receipt to delivery of the products to be produced.

Resin removal

Woods rich in resin such as pine, Swiss pine, etc. must have the resin removed before staining or coating. This can be achieved in two ways:

By saponification: to do this a lye is applied to the wood that saponifies the resin, making it water soluble. Subsequent washing and neutralising is often required.

Dissolving the resin with a solvent, e.g. acetone or a cellulose thinner. The resin sludge needs to be removed immediately with absorbent cloths or sawdust

Risk assessment

The duty to systematically analyse risks at different workplaces is a central point of the preventative strategy of the German Workplace Protection Act of 1996. The fundamental provisions are to be found in Arts. 5-6 of the German Workplace Protection Act.

Risk categories

Flammable liquids are divided into risk categories.

Group A I - A III:

All flammable liquids insoluble in water.

A1 = Fp below 21°C

A2 = Fp from 21 - 55°C

A3 = Fp above 55°C

Group B:

All flammable liquids that dissolve at 15°C in any ratio in water and have an Fp below 21°C. The individual solvents and their Fps are calculated using the formulation and denoted according to the material.


are inorganic or natural products. It is also a collective technical term for solid to liquid organic products with a varying distribution of the relative molecular mass. Resins are often used as raw materials or binding agents, e.g. for moulding compounds, adhesives and coating systems (lacquers). E.g. alkyd resin, acrylic resin, melamine resin and epoxy resin. Resins are divided into natural resins and synthetic resins depending on their origin.


refers to the lines and/or cracks due to a coating swelling caused by solvents, e.g. from another layer or paint remover


R-phrases form part of the labelling of dangerous materials and preparations in accordance with Arts. 5-14 of the German Dangerous Materials Regulations. They contain information on specific dangers according to Appendix III of Directive 67/548/EEC.


The central body of German commerce for the protection of goods (German Institute for Quality Assurance and Certification e.V. - Deutsches Institut für Gütesicherung und Kennzeichnung e.V.). Only colours that will be widely used in commerce are entered into the RAL colour register. As such they are a representation of those colours predominately used above all by major consumers (railways, post, engineering)

Room temperature

Should be between 18 and 22°C during application. The temperature of the lacquer and the item being worked on should be adjusted to room temperature.


Refers to the recycling of waste for the original or a different purpose.


Is the removal of oxygen or the absorption of hydrogen. The opposite is oxidation


The reflection of rays (acoustic, electromagnetic waves, particle beams)


e.g. resistance to materials in daily use (chemicals, acids, salts, etc.), but also to wood parasites.

Reverse roller

Dosing roller can be reversed, i.e. run in both directions. In this way it is possible to apply more lacquer. Up to 120g/m² can be applied depending on the type of lacquer, but then surface quality is not ideal and stripes and outline of the roller can be seen.

Resistance to metal rings

Due to their titanium dioxide white pigment content, white and pastel-coloured lacquers react by blackening when in contact with gold or silver rings. This occurs less with semi matt, but particularly with matt lacquers. As a result, these surfaces are sprayed with a light-resistant (non-yellowing) clear lacquer in order to achieve the desired "ring resistance" with quality furniture


an altering effect caused predominately by the pores in coarse-pore timber becoming stained or contaminated


REACH has been in force since 2007 and is intended to ensure a high level of protection regarding human health and the environment. It should at the same time guarantee smooth distribution of chemicals across the domestic market and foster competition and innovation. REACH is based on the principle that manufacturers, importers and downstream users assume responsibility for their chemicals. They must ensure that the chemicals they manufacture and distribute are used in a safe manner. The acronym “REACH” is derived from the title of the regulation: Regulation concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of CHemicals. The ⁠REACH Regulation⁠ is considered to be one of the world’s strictest chemical laws.


(Residual lyes)

1. by saponifying by means of lyes and then rewashing and neutralising with diluted acids. Particularly effective with old linseed oil and oil varnish films.

2. Even two-component coatings such as DD and polyacrylic coatings can be removed with specialist strippers. Polyester coatings must be ground off. The composition needs to be checked to determine if it includes any halogenated solvents. Pay attention to the corresponding specifications and disposal. Also ensure that the surface is free of silicon and residual grease by washing down with benzine before applying the paint stripper.


(Sedimentation) With surface materials (stains and lacquers), solid matter (the heavy particles) settle when stored for long periods and must be well mixed in again before continued treatment, as otherwise differences in colour and shine cannot be avoided.


used like dying to change the natural colour of the wood. the term 'staining' has been adopted for both processes. Actual staining happens due to chemicals and in combination with colourants. A distinction is made between: Chemical double staining and EP staining for soft woods, water-based and solvent staining for soft and hard woods

Single-component lacquer

Lacquer without hardening additives do not harden completely in liquid form in the absence of air. They dry where the solvent is evaporated.

Sc lacquer

Single component lacquer

Source of emissions

Location of the excessive discharge of a contaminating material into the atmosphere

Solids content

The solids content of a solution (stain, lacquer, etc.). The solids content is what is left behind (solids residue) after a solvent has evaporated. The dry lacquer film on the surface is referred to as the coat strength or thickness and given in. For example, NC lacquers have a mean solids content of 25%, meaning 75% of the applied materials are solvents and diluents that evaporate. The solids content is the ratio of backweighing and weighing after the solvent has evaporated due to the effect of heat (60°C to 120°C) expressed as a percentage.


happens for example with very fine or smoothed down sanding paper with smoothing wax added or with a 600 grain and a soft block in order to remove rough areas caused by dust deposits when spraying

Scratch resistance

Scratch and scoring resistance. The easiest test, but inaccurate: attempt at scratching with the nail of the thumb or index finger. Scratch resistance test using a blade or a scribe needle weighed with up to 500g and run across the surface. The weight at which the first permanent scratch appears corresponds to the scratch resistance in accordance with the respective definition. Pencil procedure: Pencils from 6B to 9H are run over the lacquer film in sequence at an angle of 30° and under the same load. The designation of the pencil to first leave a noticeable impression on the lacquer film corresponds to the scratch resistance

Shelf life

Period from manufacture of the adhesive or, as may apply, surface material until it becomes unusable despite complying with the storage conditions


Solvents are primarily organic substances or preparations that under normal conditions are liquids. They are used for diluting or thinning other substances so that they can be removed or processed. Solvents have different, but as a rule harmful properties, and are mostly dangerous materials.

Solvents (organic)

are ring- or chain-shaped compounds from the extraction of coal or natural gas. They are able to dissolve the solid components required for the lacquer such as resin and cellulose wool and shape them ready for use. The resulting concentrate can be extended up to a specific threshold with so-called diluents or thinners.

Aliphates (benzine, turpentine subsitute, white spirit);

Alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol);

Aromatic compounds (toloul, xylol);

Esters (ethyl acetate, butyl acetate);

Glycols (propylglykol, butylglycol);

Ketones (acetone, methyl ethyl ketone);

Specialist solvents

Solvents - characteristics

The characteristics of the solvent are to be taken into account when storing and using it. We differentiate between relative (such as evaporation rate) and absolute information such as boiling point, flashpoint, the TLV, explosion threshold. Added to these are the specific instructions relating to fire prevention and transport

Sinking in

depending on its solids content, a lacquer film will collapse after application with the pores in the wood standing out as depressions

Sinking in

depending on its solids content, a lacquer film will collapse after application with the pores in the wood standing out as depressions

Surface tension

The behaviour of surface tension is based on how the molecules in the liquid attract each other. Inside the liquid the forces cancel each other out mutually, on the surface they are directed inwards and strive to keep the surface as small as possible. Water has a very high surface tension compared to organic solvents. This has corresponding effects on the coating as well as the atomising energy, the wetting of the substrate, air pockets and foam


Attached wide, thin elastic bar or blade of wood, metal or rubber. On printing and glazing machines it wipes away superfluous dye from the print roller or the goods


Tanning-rich wood, e.g. oak, will absorb ammonia (liquid ammonia) and in doing so changes its colour tone (grey-green-blue). Short-term smoking provides light colour tones, long-term smoking provides dark ones. Beech and willow (baskets) can also be smoked


S-phrases form part of the labelling of dangerous materials and preparations in accordance with Arts. 5-14 of the German Dangerous Materials Regulations. They contain safety advice according to Appendix III of Directive 67/548/EEC.

Sand blasting

Procedure for bringing out the texture on the surface of softwood. Well-weathered effect, similar to old wood. Powerful bellows are used to blow fine, sharp, iron-free silica sand onto the surface, sweeping out the soft young wood up to a specific depth. The finest relief surfaces are achieved with pine, fir, Scots pine and larch.


Extracted from the resinous secretions of the 1-2 mm large lac bug native to India that resides in a large number of trees and bushes. It is prepared, cleaned and washed and to a large extent has the colour removed before being processed into a lacquer soluble in white spirit (shellac polish or, as may apply, matting compound). It is partly cut with nitrocellulose. Shellac qualities are occasionally used for restoring antique furniture and in industry (leather, metal, etc.)

Sanding speed

The belt speed should be: with - lacquer sanding 8-12 m/sec and with - wood sanding 24-32 m/s

Safety footwear

Safety footwear are shoes manufactured for commercial purposes fitted with toe caps to withstand heavy loads. The protective properties of the toe caps are tested at 200 Joules. Safety shoes represent a specific form of foot protections. They are shoes produced in accordance with EN 345 'Specification for commercially available safety shoes'. A particular feature compared to work shoes is that they are provided with toe caps.


also known as soligens. Addition of oil dyes and varnish that accelerate the drying process. Works as a catalyst. Siccatives consist generally of the metal salts of organic acids

Silver pores

where polyester lacquer is applied directly to wood without special primer, minor shrink cracks appear during the drying or hardening process. With this, the dried lacquer detaches somewhat from the base of the pore, which particularly with dark woods appears as a silvery-white, glittering pore base - the silver pores


are clear plastics containing oil where in the main the carbon has been replaced by silicon. They are produced in the form of silicon oil, silicon resin and silicon rubber. Even small amounts of silicon make lacquers, wax pastes, papers and textiles water-repellent. Silicon solutions as an addition are also used as levelling agents

Sealing primer

mostly of DD material or based on epoxy resin for sealing exotic woods such as Macassar ebony, teak and rose wood before coating with polyester lacquer. In this way, obstructing or harmful wood contents are unable to escape and hinder the lacquer from hardening or adhering

Spray pattern

a visual appraisal of the surface of the lacquer with regard to: Levelling, pore structure, colouring, formation of bubbles and strips. It is deduced from the features describing the spray pattern, such as: shape, surface, position and distribution of mass. For example, the way a spray gun is controlled can achieve a pushing or pulling spray jet, resulting visually in a different spray pattern

Stacking ability

Post-coating drying is only complete when the items worked on can be stacked on top of each other without sticking to each other (block-proof). In order for transport devices and storage areas to quickly become free again, the ability to stack should be achieved after a short period of time


Salt or ester of stearic acid

Surface endurance

in particular with closed-pore surfaces, importance is attached to the pores not falling in after treatment has finished


Monostyrene multifunctional solvent and main odour-bearing compound in polystyrene lacquer. Using polymerisation it passes from a liquid (monomere) to a solid (polymer) binding state


is an insoluble, mostly achromatic material involved in the development of certain colour lacquers (e.g. aluminium hydroxide in dyer's madder lacquer) or a name synonymous with carrier. The term substrate is sometimes also used for the material to be covered


is chiefly a metal salt of an organic acid soluble in organic solvents or binding agents to which oxidising drying products are added in order to accelerate the drying process. We differentiate between solid and liquid siccatives

Secondary packaging

Packaging used by a forwarder to hold several packages and to form a unit to facilitate handling and loading during carriage, e.g. packages on one pallet secured with shrink wrap.


This abbreviation stands for “Substance of Very High Concern”; its German counterpart is “besonders besorgniserregender Stoff”. These are substances that exhibit the properties defined under REACH Article 57 AND that in a specific proceeding have been identified as a SVHC and thus included on the REACH candidate list. Article 57 of the REACH Regulation defines the following properties as particularly problematic: carcinogenic, mutagenic, toxic to reproduction (CMR); persistent, bioaccumulating and toxic (PBT); very persistent and very bioaccumulating (VPVB). Substances that give rise to similar concerns (such as those with hormonal effects or substances that are harmful to the respiratory tract) can also be included on the candidate list.


Tarnishing (white tarnishing) is used to describe a dull milky layer of lacquer. Here, this refers to condensation from water vapour on the surface of the lacquer. By drying too fast with high humidity and low temperatures which prevents the moisture from escaping the lacquer film. Especially with NC lacquers

Thermosetting polymers

plastics formed by chemical cross-linking that after the reaction are no longer able to dissolve or soften with the help of organic solvents, e.g. polyurethane lacquers or polyester. They do not melt either

To set

Transitional forms with chemical reactions, e.g. of a synthetic resin between liquid and solid states. Can also be caused by the flashing off of solvents


Tannic acids. acid reacting materials of plant, animal, mineral or synthetic origin. Tannins from plants create with many metal salts a coloured precipitation and are therefore used for preliminary staining of woods low in tannins. The best known tannic acids used for preliminary staining are: Tannin, pyrogallol, catechu, catechol

Toxicity classes

toxins are graded depending on their toxicity in accordance with Art. 4 of the German Toxins Act. The following scale is used to grade the acute oral lethal dose (DL50 value 1) for rats and other species of animals if no other restrictions need to be considered for toxicological reasons.

Lethal doses

Toxicity class 1 - 5 mg/kg

Toxicity class 2 5 - 50 mg/kg

Toxicity class 3 50 - 500 mg/kg

Toxicity class 4 500 - 2000 mg/kg

Toxicity class 5 2000 - 5000 mg/kg

Note: Lethal dose = mg toxin per kg body weight.

Examples for grading toxins:

Toxicity class 1: Benzene, potassium cyanide, vinyl chloride, hydrofluoric acid.

Toxicity class 2: Hydrochloric acid, caustic soda, org. Lead compounds,

Toxicity class 3: Methyl alcohol, sodium chloride, quantity of lead.

Toxicity class 4: Acetone, clean benzine, turpentine oil

Toxicity class 5: Alcohol, petrol, soda

Toxicity class 5 S: Car care products, stain remover

Touch dry

Also tensile strength, the layer of lacquer has dried or hardened to such an extent that fingerprints are no longer left

Tung oil

is the product obtained by pressing or extracting the seeds of the tung tree. It must be free from added oils or fats


Threshold Limit Value. A workplace value to be applied to the private sphere. Refers to vapours, dust or gases of harmful substances mixed with the ambient air and that as of a certain concentration or, as may apply, saturation have harmful effects on the health of humans. The TLV is expressed in mg/m³ of air moved (milligrams of suspended matter per cubic metre of air), or in ppm 'parts per million'. The designation 1 ppm = 1cm³/m³ = 0.0001%. Using the size of the room and the materials obtained for processing allows how often the air needs to be changed per hour to be calculated. Using a test device or the so-called tube method, certain gases - depending on the tube used and employed - can be tested and concentrations (with a measurement error of 10 - 20%) can be determined. The TLV refers to an 8 hour day and a 40 hour week


German Technical Guidelines for Preserving the Quality of Air. Regulations issued in 1983 and since updated on several occasions covering the approval and monitoring of systems that are harmful to the environment across Germany. 'TA-Luft' also includes, among other things, general emission values for dust- and gas-forming materials as well as imission values for protection from health risks and significant nuisance

Taber abraser

Testing appliance for abrasion resistance. DIN 53799


Very soft mineral (hardness 1), flaky and scaly, also in dense, coarse masses, somewhat translucent, clear or greenish, with a greasy feel


a clear to slightly yellowish powder, mainly extracted from Chinese gallnuts. Tannin is a tanning agent and is used, when dissolved in water, as a pre-stain when chemically staining woods low in tanning agents. The pre-stained surfaces take on colour when subsequently stained with metal salt solutions or alkalis. Tannin dissolves in water, ethyl alcohol and diethyl ether

Teak oil

Based on self-drying linseed oil. Firstly, a rich sealer is rubbed in and after being left to dry for approximately 24 hours a fatless, easy-drying preserver is applied and left to dry properly or, as may apply, rubbed down. If the sealer and preserver are cut with cheap mineral oils, drying take a very long time. The objective is open-pore, aesthetically perfect surfaces that may however become rough due to subsequent relatively high air humidity. This process was replaced in the 60s by the better 'Scandinavian Surface Treatment'

Temperature class

Equipment is divided into temperature classes according to their maximum surface temperature T6 max. permitted surface temperature <= 85°C T5 max. permitted surface temperature <= 100°C T4 max. permitted surface temperature <= 135°C T3 max. permitted surface temperature <= 200°C T2 max. permitted surface temperature <= 300°C T1 max. permitted surface temperature <= 450°C

Turpentine oil

Distilled from resin-rich species of pine, (balsams) as a solvent for resins, synthetic resin and waxes. Turpentine oil must be labelled at concentrates over 10% and it causes irritation to the skin and mucous membranes


called apparent viscosity. This is the feature of many solidified colloids for becoming predominately liquid under the influence of mechanical forces (sol-gel transition). Provided lacquers applied with thixotrpoic agents are in motion, i.e. being shaken or stirred or, as may apply, sprayed, they are relatively fluid (sol state), but if they are at rest they solidify immediately. A gel is formed. In order to prevent the polyester lacquer film from running off or tearing off on standing surfaces, thixotropic agents are added to the lacquer either before spraying or even at the manufacturer. Thixotropic lacquers are certainly easier to work with on standing surfaces and when working above head-height, but do not level very well on horizontal surfaces, which involves increased effort when sanding the lacquer


Methylbenzol C6H5CH3. Clear, flammable solvent for different resins and rubbers. Derivative of benzine and as such a hydrocarbon. Spec. weight 0.87; boiling point 110°C


the gauge of the toxins and toxic nature, the gauge of the harmful effect of chemical substances on biological tissue of humans and animals


Translucency or clarity of a coating

Technology centre

With more than 1,000 m², the R & D centre (also known as the technology centre) is one of the world's largest and most modern machine parks for coating and painting surfaces. In this area, new lacquers are subjected to practical tests. When planning new systems, major customers have the opportunity to test Hesse lacquers on their desired system.

UN number

Four-digit number identifying a dangerous substance, group of substances or an object.

UP lacquer

also PE lacquer


is a collective name for unpigmented coating materials consisting of non-thickened oils or resin solutions or mixtures of these materials. As a result, the term 'varnish' must be used with identifying wording (e.g. linseed oil varnish, resin varnish) in individual cases. Varnish is characterised by its good drying capacity. In general, varnish refers to an oil whose drying capacity is significantly enhanced by the addition of siccatives


Residues that accrue in industry or trade that cannot be recycled, or can only be recycled after processing.

Waste disposal

"Organisational measures for collecting and transporting waste. Transporting includes handling of the waste such as incineration, classification and recycling".

Waste Act

German Law relating to the Prevention and Removal of waste

Waste Framework Directive

One of the first statutory Europe-wide initiatives for protecting the environment

Waste management strategy

Workplace assistance for in-house waste management

Waste water

"Contaminated water that needs to be cleaned by a waste treatment plant before entering the water course or an above-ground body of water ".

Workplace accident

In accordance with the German Social Security Code VII, workplace accidents are regarded as insured events where the insured party is injured or dies during an insured activity. Insured parties are primarily employees, but also authorised individuals. Activities and methods are insured.

Wet-on-wet application

the wet-on-wet process refers to a further layer of lacquer being applied to a wet lacquer film. With well-developed processing techniques it is now possible to apply a transparent protective lacquer immediately with a pigmented lacquer, even with pigmented coating, without the pigment flocculating to the transparent lacquer. Application can be by means of a double-headed curtain coating machine or by spraying. With curtain coating, the coloured lacquer is applied with the first head and the transparent lacquer with the second head immediately thereafter. With spraying, the clear top coat can be sprayed on as soon as the coloured lacquer has been applied. This process saves on transport and drying times

Wet separation

wet separation refers to the overspray with the different spray processes being absorbed by the walls of a spray booth

Wet sanding

Smoothing process with water, oil or white spirit as cooling and dust binding agents

Wetting agents


reduce the surface tension allowing better wetting. Surfactants stabilise pigments and fillers in liquid lacquer

White spirit

(also mineral spirit) solvent for many lacquer resins based on various aliphatic hydrocarbons. Also a thinning and cleaning agent with a flashpoint of over 21°C and a boiling range between 130 and 220°C

Waste that requires monitoring

Waste requiring monitoring is graded in the regulations covering waste requiring monitoring according to waste codes.


With 'normal' spray coating, the items are normally sprayed from the front and at times from the side, but never on the rear. With electrostatic and powder coating however, a 'wrap-around' is achieved where the parts are coated on all sides